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Journal Article

A Vision-Based Forward Collision Warning System Developed under Virtual Environment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0754
This paper presents a novel approach of developing a vision-based forward collision warning system (FCW) under a virtual and real-time driving environment. The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation has been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of the FCW and other similar ADAS systems.
Journal Article

A New Method for Target Object Selection for ACC System Based on Analysis of Vehicle Trajectories

2014-04-01
2014-01-0301
The trajectory variation of preceding objects with changing road curvature and uncertain driving behaviors of both host and preceding cars make it difficult for conventional radar-based Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system to effectively select its valid target object, which is mainly caused by the deficient judgment about the preceding curves and the behaviors of preceding cars. Through analysis of the trajectories that host and preceding objects generate, the new proposed method can differentiate the operating conditions of each car, either in straight lane, on curve or in lane-change, thus front path prediction and host vehicle's future lane estimation can be precisely fulfilled. From radar and host car's information a coordinate that changes under several criteria can be established, and based on this coordinate the trajectories of preceding and host car can be recorded and analyzed, some mathematics methods are adopted to reach the qualitative conclusion.
Technical Paper

Development of Active Control Strategy for Flat Tire Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0859
This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy.
Journal Article

Allocation-Based Fault Tolerant Control for Electric Vehicles with X-by-Wire

2014-04-01
2014-01-0866
This paper proposed a novel fault-tolerant control method based on control allocation via dynamic constrained optimization for electric vehicles with XBW systems. The total vehicle control command is first derived based on interpretation on driver's intention as a set of desired vehicle body forces, which is further dynamically distributed to the control command of each actuator among vehicle four corners. A dynamic constrained optimization method is proposed with the cost function set to be a linear combination of multiple control objectives, such that the control allocation problem is transformed into a linear programming formulation. An analytical yet explicit solution is then derived, which not only provides a systematic approach in handling the actuation faults, but also is efficient and real-time feasible for in-vehicle implementation. The simulation results show that the proposed method is valid and effective in maintaining vehicle operation as expected even with faults.
Technical Paper

A Quantitative Assessment Framework for Model Quality Evaluation of 3D Scene under Simulation Platform

2014-04-01
2014-01-0177
Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (Vi-ADAS) has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. This paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework for model quality evaluation of 3D scene under simulation platform. An imaging model is first built. The problem of solving the imaging model is then transformed into the problem of intrinsic image decomposition. Based on Retinex theory and Non-local texture analyses, a superior intrinsic image decomposition method is adopted to evaluate the fidelity of the 3D scene model through the degree of deviation to the Reflectance and Shading intrinsic maps respectively.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Virtual Simulation Environment for Advanced Driver Assistance System Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0194
This paper presents a novel real-time virtual simulation environment for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation and experiment have been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of ADAS systems.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Intelligent Driving with Trajectory Planning and Tracking

2014-04-01
2014-01-0108
This paper proposes a novel modeling and simulation environment developed under Matlab/Simulink with friendly and intuitive graphic user interfaces, aimed to enable math-based virtual development and test of intelligent driving systems. Six typical driving maneuvers are first proposed, which are further abstracted into two atomic sub-maneuvers: lane following and lane change, as any maneuvers can be the combinations of these two. A generic trajectory planning and path tracking control algorithm are developed to deal with the generality and commonality of the lane change function with optimization among safety, comfort and efficiency in performing the lane change maneuver. Some typical simulations are conducted with results demonstrating the practical usefulness, efficiency and convenience in using this proposed tool.
Journal Article

Power-Balance and Wavelet-Transform Based Power Management of Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0253
Power management of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) with battery and supercapacitor(SC) is of critical importance for electric vehicles to achieve good driving performance, long traveling range and high energy efficiency. Due to the great differences in dynamic characteristics between battery and supercapacitor, and the complexity of a HESS, proper power management strategy between battery and supercapacitor remains to be challenging. The proposed research in this paper is to develop a power-balance and wavelet-transform based strategy for power distribution in a way such that each device can be utilized optimally. The transient dynamics is first decoupled via wavelet-transform algorithm while the power-balance algorithm is employed to improve system robustness based on the desired velocity-SOC relationship and a fuzzy logical controller. Finally some simulations have been conducted with results shown that the proposed strategy is valid and effective.
Journal Article

Allocation-Based Control with Actuator Dynamics for Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0653
This paper proposes a novel allocation-based control method for four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicles. In the proposed method, both actuator dynamics and input/output constraints are fully taken into consideration in the control design. First, the actuators are modeled as first-order dynamic systems with delay. Then, the control allocation is formulated as an optimization problem, with the primary objective of minimizing errors between the actual and desired control outputs. Other objectives include minimizing the power consumption and the slew rate of the actuator outputs. As a result, this leads to frequency-dependent allocation that reflects the bandwidth of each actuator. To solve the optimization problem, an efficient numerical algorithm is employed. Finally the proposed control allocation method is implemented to control a four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Accurate Speed Control of the DC Motor for Anti-Lock Braking System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0654
The permanent-magnet DC motor, which is directly connected to the hydraulic pump, is a significant component of hydraulic control unit (HCU) in an anti-lock braking system (ABS). It drives the pump to dump the brake fluid from the low-pressure accumulator back to master cylinder and makes sure the pressure decreases of wheel cylinder in ABS control. Obviously, the motor should run fast enough to provide sufficient power and prevent the low-pressure accumulator from fully charging. However, the pump don't need always run at full speed for the consideration of energy conservation and noise reduction. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately regulate the speed of the DC motor in order to improve quality of ABS control. In this paper, an accurate speed control algorithm was developed for the permanent-magnet DC motor of the ABS to implement the performance of the system, reduce the noise and save the energy in the meanwhile.
Technical Paper

Camera Modeling for Vision-Based ADAS

2015-04-14
2015-01-0493
Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. However, most of the commercial tools are lack of elaborate lens/sensor models for the vehicle mounted cameras. This paper presents the system-based camera modeling method integrated virtual environment for vision-based ADAS design, development and testing. We present how to simulate two types of cameras with virtual 3D models and graphic render: Pinhole camera and Fisheye camera. We also give out an application named Envelope based on pinhole camera model which refers to the coverage of Field-of-Views (FOVs) of one or more cameras projected to a specific plane.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-Trailer Handling Dynamics and Stability Control ─ an Engineering Review

2007-04-16
2007-01-0822
This paper presented an engineering review on the state of the art in the research and development of vehicle-trailer handling dynamics and stability controls. The issues and potential technical solutions were identified in various areas and the unique characteristics of vehicle-trailer as a combined system were investigated and compared to a single-unit vehicle system. Many approaches taken in modeling, analysis, simulation and testing were examined, and various control methods, actuations and control implementations were evaluated. As a result of this study, further research areas were also identified. While it is important to maintain the stability of a trailer, thus the stability of a vehicle-trailer combination, it remains one of the major challenges in designing an appropriate control law to balance effectively the requirements between stability and handling performance, which often set conflicting objectives.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle-Trailer Stability and Handling Performance

2004-05-04
2004-01-2046
To cope with the conflict requirements between the stability and handling performance, and the high-order and complex vehicle-trailer plant, a model tracking method is proposed. With this approach, a feedback control is designed to “decouple” the vehicle and the trailer plant, such that each tracks a well-defined second-order reference model independently yet coordinately. A feedforward control is designed to maintain its system steady-state performance. As a result, the proposed approach not only improves the system transient responses, but also its steady-state performance. This approach further yields a simple yet analytical control derivation that provides more insight to the system dynamics.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study for a Vehicle-Trailer Backing Up Control

2004-05-04
2004-01-2080
A rear-wheel steer-by-wire mechanism has been applied to assist driver on backing up a vehicle with trailer. To address the issues related to the mechanical limitation on the rear-wheel steering angle, a comprehensive feasibility study has been conducted using analysis and simulation. Four modes of steering (front-wheel only steering, rear-wheel only steering, rear-wheel angle which is slave to front-wheel angle, and four wheel steering for backing control) are compared in terms of various parameters, such as achievable path curvature and hitch angle. Four wheel steering achieves the largest curvature range. Sensitivity to the variation in trailer tongue length also has been investigated. It is concluded that a proper driver interaction mechanism is needed to further assist the driver, since the ±12 degree limitation on rear-wheel only steering may not provide full counter-steer capability.
Technical Paper

Studies on Brake Pedal Feeling Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

2016-04-05
2016-01-0014
Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
Journal Article

Function-Based Architecture Design for Next-Generation Automotive Brake Controls

2016-04-05
2016-01-0467
This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
Technical Paper

MPC-Based Trajectory Tracking Control for Intelligent Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0452
In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) based trajectory tracking scheme utilizing steering wheel and braking or acceleration pedal is proposed for intelligent vehicles. The control objective is to track a desired trajectory which is obtained from the trajectory planner. The proposed control is based on a simplified third-order vehicle model, which consists of longitudinal vehicle dynamics along with a commonly used bicycle model. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is adopted in order to follow a given path by controlling front steering, braking and traction, while fulfilling various physical and design constraints. In order to reduce the computational burden, the NMPC is converted to a linear time-varying (LTV) MPC based on successive online linearization of the nonlinear system model. Two different test conditions have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches through simulations using Matlab and CarSim.
Technical Paper

Integrated Threat Assessment for Trajectory Planning of Intelligent Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0153
This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
Journal Article

Vehicle Automatic Lane Changing based on Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0142
In this paper, we present a model predictive controller for the autonomous vehicle lane-change maneuver. Firstly, an optimal trajectory is generated by polynomial, then, utilize it as the reference trajectory of the controller. It is well known that vehicle with nonholonomic constraints can not be feedback stabilized through continuously differentiable, time-invariant control laws. One of the advantages of MPC is the ability to handle constraints in a straightforward way. Quadratic programming is used to solve a linear MPC by successive linearization of an error model of the vehicle. Due to that the vehicle dynamics model is used, in order to prevent optimal solution cannot be obtained within the prescribed time, the relaxation factor in the objective function.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control of Brake-by-Wire Systems Based on Control Allocation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0132
Brake-by-wire (BBW) system has drawn a great attention in recent years as driven by rapidly increasing demands on both active brake controls for intelligent vehicles and regenerative braking controls for electric vehicles. However, unlike conversional brake systems, the reliability of the brake-by-wire systems remains to be challenging due to its lack of physical connection in case of system failure. There are various causes for the failure of a BBW system, such as failure of brake controller, loss of sensor signals, failure of communication or even power supply, to name a few. This paper presents a fault-tolerant control under novel control architecture. The proposed control architecture includes a driver command interpreter module, a command integration module, a control allocation module, a fault diagnosis module and state observers. The fault-tolerant control is designed based on a quadratic optimal control method with consideration of actuator constraints.
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