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Video

Achieving a Lightweight and Steel-Intensive Body Structure for Alternative Powertrains

2012-02-14
FutureSteelVehicle's (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The presentation will demonstrate seven optimized structural sub-systems that contribute to the program's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimization process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts. Presenter Jody R. Shaw, US Steel
Video

Visionary's Take: An Engineering Journey into the Marketplace (Part 3 of 3)

2017-10-12
Can you become a visionary or are you born one? How does a visionary capture an opportunity and makes it a successful business? Are engineers more qualified to solve technical problems or run companies? SAE's "The Visionary's Take" addresses these and many other questions, by talking directly with those who have dared to tackle difficult engineering problems, and create real-life products out of their experience. In these short episodes, Sanjiv Singh and Lyle Chamberlain, respectively CEO and Chief Engineer from Near Earth Autonomy, talk about their experience in creating a brand-new company in the UAV world. Founded in 2011, Near Earth Autonomy brought together a group of engineers and roboticists, looking for unconventional solutions to very hard logistics problems, presenting danger to human life. The answers were developed by pushing technology to a higher level, testing quickly and often, and keeping an open mind to alternative ways of framing engineering challenges.
Video

Visionary's Take: An Engineering Journey into the Marketplace (Part 1 of 3)

2017-10-12
Can you become a visionary or are you born one? How does a visionary capture an opportunity and makes it a successful business? Are engineers more qualified to solve technical problems or run companies? SAE's "The Visionary's Take" addresses these and many other questions, by talking directly with those who have dared to tackle difficult engineering problems, and create real-life products out of their experience. In these short episodes, Sanjiv Singh and Lyle Chamberlain, respectively CEO and Chief Engineer from Near Earth Autonomy, talk about their experience in creating a brand-new company in the UAV world. Founded in 2011, Near Earth Autonomy brought together a group of engineers and roboticists, looking for unconventional solutions to very hard logistics problems, presenting danger to human life. The answers were developed by pushing technology to a higher level, testing quickly and often, and keeping an open mind to alternative ways of framing engineering challenges.
Video

Visionary's Take: An Engineering Journey into the Marketplace (Part 2 of 3)

2017-10-12
Can you become a visionary or are you born one? How does a visionary capture an opportunity and makes it a successful business? Are engineers more qualified to solve technical problems or run companies? SAE's "The Visionary's Take" addresses these and many other questions, by talking directly with those who have dared to tackle difficult engineering problems, and create real-life products out of their experience. In these short episodes, Sanjiv Singh and Lyle Chamberlain, respectively CEO and Chief Engineer from Near Earth Autonomy, talk about their experience in creating a brand-new company in the UAV world. Founded in 2011, Near Earth Autonomy brought together a group of engineers and roboticists, looking for unconventional solutions to very hard logistics problems, presenting danger to human life. The answers were developed by pushing technology to a higher level, testing quickly and often, and keeping an open mind to alternative ways of framing engineering challenges.
Technical Paper

Simulating and Optimizing the Dynamic Chassis Forces of the Audi e-tron

2020-09-30
2020-01-1521
With battery electric vehicles (BEV), due to the absence of the combustion process, the rolling noise comes even more into play. The BEV technology also leads to different concepts of how to mount the electric engine in the car. Commonly, also applied with the Audi e-tron, the rear engine is mounted on a subframe, which again is connected to the body structure. This concept leads to a better insulation in the high frequency range, yet it bears some problems in designing the mounts for ride comfort (up to 20Hz) or body boom (up to 70Hz). Commonly engine mounts are laid-out based on driving comfort (up to 20Hz). The current paper presents a new method to find an optimal mount design (concerning the stiffness) in order to reduce the dynamic chassis forces which are transferred to the body up to 100Hz. This directly comes along with a reduction of the sound pressure level for the ‘body boom’ phenomena.
Technical Paper

3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest equipped with Loudspeakers – Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

2020-09-30
2020-01-1567
This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1570
The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53ⅹ0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.
Technical Paper

CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

2020-09-30
2020-01-1575
Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for a vehicle OEM, despite the fact that the development of the audio system is often left to a specialized supplier. Especially the questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The long term goal is to enable performing subjective evaluation of sound in a virtual car, and integrating audio evaluation in the NVH simulator. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications.
Technical Paper

The Automatic Fabrication of Automobile Frames

1928-01-01
280021
NEARLY all steel used in this process of manufacturing frames comes to the plant in the form of strips, which are rolled to remove curvature and inspected automatically for dimensions. All operations and handling are automatic, except pickling, cleaning and oiling the stock and inspecting the assembled frame, until the enameled frame is ready to be shipped. Economical use of the strip steel is dependent upon an offsetting operation that makes the strip conform to the vertical curves desired in the finished frame. With the aid of illustrations, the author follows the fabricating process through the various lines and other units, until a frame is ready for shipment or storage, within less than 2 hr. after it enters the manufacturing line as strip steel.
Technical Paper

Automobile Bodies, from the Abstract Customer's Viewpoint

1928-01-01
280057
CONSTRUCTIVE criticism of automobile bodies as now built is given herein, based on experience gained in driving five-passenger sedan cars of many makes a total distance of nearly 10,000,000 miles in one year in tests at the General Motors Proving Ground. The fault finding, although humorously exaggerated, will be valuable if taken seriously, as it gives to all body designers and builders the benefit of testing experience that few companies are in a position to gain at first hand. The author treats his subject from the viewpoint of the abstract customer; that is, the automobile-purchasing public as a whole and as represened by the imaginary average man, who is assumed to have average stature and body structure and to drive all the different makes of car. Thus he is assumed to change from one to another make frequently, instead of becoming used to only one or two cars.
Technical Paper

Four-Wheel Drives for Six-Wheel Chassis

1929-01-01
290074
MANY interesting problems in design are presented in the application of four-rear-wheel drive to a six-wheel vehicle. As axle design is intimately related to the rest of the chassis construction, the axle builder is concerned with the type of spring mounting, the method of taking the torque, and the distribution of the load. The author specifies a number of factors that positively must be taken into account and provided for in any construction that is to prove successful. He then shows by photographs and describes a number of rear-end four-wheel-drive constructions that have been built and put into operation.
Technical Paper

Pertinent Pokes for Satisfied Engineers

1933-01-01
330006
“IN making these comments,” Mr. Chase says, “I am well aware that engineers are rarely given an opportunity to design a car incorporating even a large proportion of the improvements they would like to see included. “Unless some more or less ‘ideal’ types of construction are visualized, however, there may be no well-considered objective.” Visualizing these “more or less ideal types of construction,” Mr. Chase, in the following paper, throws a blanket indictment at the car designers, says what he thinks about current automobiles in no uncertain terms, and states specifically what he thinks ought to be done about it. Bodies, frames, springs, headlights, seats, engines-no unit of the modern car escapes Mr. Chase's stimulating criticism.
Technical Paper

Inventory Control

1932-01-01
320028
PROVIDING ample stock to guard against the possibility of the interruption of production for lack of material was the chief aim of inventory control in 1920. Recognition of the importance of turnover is one of several factors that have led to a study of minimum stocks. Inventories received first consideration in the now well-established financial-control policies of the General Motors Corp. Formerly, placing orders for materials far in advance of needs had been thought necessary to assure the supply, but restricting orders to suppliers to three months in advance has been satisfactory for 10 years. Each car division of the Corporation now submits a definite monthly forecast, based on 10-day reports from dealers of stocks and actual and estimated sales, which estimates the number of cars to be sold by the dealers, delivered to the dealers and manufactured during the current and three forward months.
Technical Paper

Frame Design and Front-End Stability

1932-01-01
320003
EXPERIMENTAL work done to ascertain the influence of frame and body structures upon front-end stability of the automobile is described by the author and definite means of preventing the phenomena of wheel wabble, shimmy and vibratory movements of the radiator, head-lamps and fenders are set forth. Early investigation showed that the problem involved not only the unsprung portions of the car but also the structural arrangement of the frame and the body. Chassis-dynamometer tests revealed a nodal point of zero torsional vibration approximately at a plane through the front seat but varying with different cars and body types, the forward portion of the chassis vibrating torsionally about the longitudinal axis in opposite phase to the rear portion. Experiments rather conclusively proved that damping is needed in the frame and body.
Technical Paper

Noise and Heat Control in the Automobile Body

1932-01-01
320050
INSULATING of automobile bodies against noise and heat has been made more complicated by the trend toward lower and more compact bodies and larger and more powerful engines, as more noise and heat are created and must be excluded from the body. Development of the all-steel body also has presented a new problem that calls for different treatment than the composite steel and wood body. Elimination of noise and heat from the body is the mutual problem of the chassis and the body engineers and must be attacked jointly, correction of the trouble being made at the most logical and practical places. Much successful work has been done in the last few years to eliminate noise and heat, but much more can be accomplished by further concentrated effort. After listing the more objectionable chassis noises which have received most attention, the author considers the remaining noise and the heat against which the body must be insulated.
Technical Paper

Weight Saving by Structural Efficiency

1931-01-01
310034
METHODS employed by the author to reduce the weight of the structural frame without sacrificing strength are described in the paper. To obtain this result the best available cross-section must be selected and the members arranged to transmit the load directly to the final supports which should lie approximately in a plane that is parallel to the load vector; also where a bending moment is caused by the loading, the support attachment should produce a moment of the same amount and of opposite sign. Avoiding secondary bending and utilizing the advantages of full continuity over supports can be secured by a simple arrangement of the frame members. Substitution of power tools for hand tools will effect a reduction in assembly costs. Sections suitable for power assembly include closed hollow-sections, which have a high structural efficiency, as well as angles, channels, I-beams and similar shapes.
Technical Paper

HEAT-BALANCE TESTS OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINES

1917-01-01
170003
The authors outline some of the problems that confront the automobile engineer today, showing how the demand for better performance and economy and the ever-increasing cost of volatile fuels has emphasized the necessity for thorough engineering work in the successful automobile manufacturing plant. Believing that the accurate analysis of the heat distribution in a modern automobile engine will be of great value, the authors describe a comprehensive test, made under their direction, of such an engine. This test includes measurements of the brake horsepower, friction horsepower, fuel consumption and heat losses to jackets, exhaust and cooling air. The engine tested was inclosed in a hood, similar to that used on the car in normal service and an air blast was directed through this hood at speeds approximating those at which the engine would drive a car with a given gear ratio.
Technical Paper

Tires as a Cause of Shimmy

1927-01-01
270023
THE author enumerates and describes various inter-related movements of the front end of the car that are commonly known as automobile shimmy. A long list is given of experiments made in an attempt to correct the trouble. These did not produce consistent results but showed that caster angle acts as a considerable influence, while the influence of camber and toe-in seems to be more on tire wear than on shimmy. Lubrication of springs and conditions affecting the free motion of the steering pivots have some influence but the author sees imperfections in the tires as fundamental causes. The nature of the road is also important, particularly of concrete roads having regularly spaced depressions at joints. Some of the tire imperfections are described and blame is placed on the tire makers for being less thorough in their methods of testing and inspection than are car manufacturers.
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