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Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2011

2011-04-12
The 28 papers in this technical paper collection cover the aerodynamics development of vehicles or vehicle subsystems. Many papers discuss the utilization of both experimental and computational tools during the development phase.
Collection

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2012

2012-04-13
The 32 papers in this technical paper collection discuss vehicle aerodynamics. Topics covered include vehicle cooling-drag, aerodynamic effects of different tire models, development of the Tesla Model S, experimental test facilities and adjustments, CFD validation and application, heavy truck aerodynamics, and more. The 32 papers in this technical paper collection discuss vehicle aerodynamics. Topics covered include vehicle cooling-drag, aerodynamic effects of different tire models, development of the Tesla Model S, experimental test facilities and adjustments, CFD validation and application, heavy truck aerodynamics, and more.
Collection

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection covers vehicle aerodynamic development, drag reduction and fuel economy, handling and stability, cooling flows, surface soiling and water management, vehicle internal environment, tyre aerodynamics and modelling, aeroacoustics, structural response to aerodynamic loading, simulating the on-road environment, onset flow turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics, fundamental flow structures, new test methods and facilities, new applications of computational fluid dynamics simulation, competition vehicle aerodynamics.
Collection

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2017

2017-03-28
Vehicle aerodynamic development, drag reduction and fuel economy, handling and stability, cooling flows, surface soiling and water management, vehicle internal environment, tyre aerodynamics and modelling, aeroacoustics, structural response to aerodynamic loading, simulating the on-road environment, onset flow turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics, fundamental flow structures, new test methods and facilities, new applications of computational fluid dynamics simulation, competition vehicle aerodynamics.
Video

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-11-17
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Video

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

2012-05-23
Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center
Video

Eco+ Solutions in High Performance Plastics from DSM for Automotive.

2012-05-22
DSM will present various application solutions in High Performance Plastics enabling to significant weight or friction reduction and thus to reduced fuel consumption and/or emission levels, and on top of that to lower system costs. Typical Eco+ Solutions Examples to be presented are: - Friction Reduction: Nylon 46 in chain tensioners yielding up to 1 % fuel reduction - Weight Reduction (metal-to-plastic conversion): Nylon 46 with long term temperature resistance upto 230 C in turbo components, Nylon 6 in oil pans/sumps, PET in plastic precision parts, Nylon 46 in gears, many other examples - Electrification: Nylon 46 in start/stop and e-motor components, TPC in HV cables - System Cost optimization: High Flow PA6 in various components, TPC in Brake Tubes - Improved LCA: biobased materials as PA410 and TPC-Eco Typical Application Solutions concern: air induction systems, engine and transmission components, electrical systems, structural&safety parts.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Book

Aerodynamic Flow Visualization Techniques and Procedures

1986-02-01
Flow visualization is an important factor in the aerodynamic development of passenger cars and ground vehicles. This report offers an overview of techniques used to examine complex flow fields, concentrating on techniques used in automotive wind tunnels. Includes numerous full-color photographs showing various flow fields. The following flow visualization techniques are discussed in this report: Surface Flow Description Using Yarn Tufts Surface Flow Description Using a Continuous Oil Film Flow Field Description Using Smoke Streamers Flow Field Description Using Helium Bubbles Streamer Flow Field Description Using a Continuous Motion Survey - Computer Generated Graphics And Many More
Technical Paper

Automobile Induction-Systems and Air-Cleaners

1928-01-01
280051
AFTER indicating the trend of requirements in induction systems, the author discusses air-cleaners, carbureters and inlet manifolds. Particular attention is paid to improvements in centrifugal air-cleaners, that result in only slight pressure loss and in high cleaning efficiency. These improvements have been made by changing the body outline; by the addition of a diffuser, to make the resistance as small as possible; and by proportioning the vanes, as to angle and number, to increase the cleaning efficiency with only slight loss in pressure. Carbureters are considered briefly, only because of their interrelation with air-cleaners and manifolds. Inlet manifolding for four, six, and eight-cylinder-inline engines is studied, with variations in port arrangement. Recommendations are made as to the cross-sectional areas and form to secure best distribution of the mixture and adequate vaporization.
Technical Paper

A New Electrical Engine-Indicator

1928-01-01
280050
AFTER enumerating the fundamental qualities that make an engine indicator successful, the authors classify existing indicators and discuss a few of the more successful ones. Then is introduced the new electrical indicator, which makes its record from variation between the resistances of two carbon-piles which form the branches of a Wheatstone bridge. The pressure element is a thin diaphragm flush with the inner walls of the combustion-chamber. This is connected by an invar rod to a cantilever spring, the displacement of which reduces the resistance in one carbon-pile and increases the resistance in the other. The diagram is recorded by either an ordinary oscillograph or a portable cathode-ray oscillograph. Diagrams taken with this indicator are presented to illustrate its performance under varied conditions. A natural frequency of more than 3000 cycles per second makes possible the faithful recording of phenomena having frequencies as high as 800 cycles per second.
Technical Paper

Service Characteristics of Light Alloys

1929-01-01
290064
ALUMINUM and magnesium, being the lightest commercial metals and therefore the most suitable for aircraft construction, are discussed in their pure and alloyed states. Physical properties of the pure metals and their alloys are given and the effects of adding small quantities of alloying elements are shown. Heat-treating as a means of increasing the strength per unit weight of the alloys is discussed at length, together with the effects of natural aging and artificial aging at elevated temperatures and of quenching in hot and in cold water after heat-treating. The several types of corrosion are considered and resistance to corrosion of the metals and their various alloys are discussed. Protection afforded to aluminum alloy by a surface coating of pure aluminum is described, and other methods are mentioned.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Chamber Progress Correlated

1930-01-01
300005
PREVIOUS papers on Combustion-Chamber Design by three leading authorities on the subject showed enough points of real or apparent disagreement to leave the designing engineer in doubt on many of the details of design which they discussed. The author of this paper was asked to make a study of the works of these three authorities to discover points of agreement and clarify the subject for the benefit of engineers in general. Requests were made that each of the three authors in question furnish a list of his writings to be considered in this connection. Such lists were received from Mr. Ricardo and Mr. Janeway, but not from Mr. Whatmough in time for use in preparing the original paper. After the paper was delivered, a letter was received from Mr. Whatmough, and revisions in the paper have been made on the basis of that letter. Credit is given to Mr. Ricardo for initiating the study of combustion-chambers and inspiring other workers.
Technical Paper

Bearing Bronzes with Additions of Zinc, Phosphorus, Nickel and Antimony

1930-01-01
300012
SEVEN basic copper-tin-lead bearing-bronzes having high copper contents were studied by the application of various mechanical tests, such as Brinell hardness, resistance to impact, resistance to repeated pounding and resistance to wear. The effects of various additions were investigated by preparing test bearings of the same base alloys with additions of zinc, phosphorus, nickel and antimony, taken singly, and applying the same tests to these. The preparation of the test castings and the methods of testing are described in detail. The chemical analyses are given for the 40 different alloys tested; and the results of the various tests on each group of alloys are reported and discussed in detail, with the observations charted and tabulated for convenient reference. A tabulation of the specifications of 54 different bearing bronzes now in use is included in the paper. Dr. Dowdell presented and discussed∗ the paper for the authors.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engines for Automobiles

1930-01-01
300014
EXPERIENCE with a large sedan and a roadster in which the original eight-cylinder engine had been replaced by a four-cylinder Diesel engine is recounted in the first part of this paper, including road driving and establishing an official speed record of 80.389 m.p.h. at Daytona Beach, Fla. Then follows a description of the metering, injection and combustion processes of the Cummins engine, which are distinguished principally by the separation of the metering and injection operations so that the former is done at low pressure and the fuel is preheated and aerated before injection. Turbulence is caused and sooting of the injector orifices is prevented by the action of an air bottle in the piston-head. Discussion of this paper and H. D. Hill's paper on Small Diesel Engines will be found beginning on p. 290 of the September, 1930, issue of the S.A.E. JOURNAL.
Technical Paper

Standard Rating Needed for Fuels for High-Speed Oil-Engines

1933-01-01
330002
ONCE a method for standard Diesel-fuel knock-rating has been established, a standard for Diesel-fuel specifications should be set which will cover standard knock-rating, gravity, viscosity, pour point, Conradson carbon, water, sediment and sulphur content. The last three items have an important influence on the wear and depreciation of the engine as well as on the carbon formation in the combustion chamber. The foregoing conclusions are reached after the author has treated the subject in general as well as in particular, under the headings: Combustion process, delay period, turbulence, drop-size, variable delay-time, spontaneous and controlled combustion, chemical characteristics of the fuel and physical properties. Practical methods for oil-engine-fuel knock-ratings are also suggested.
Technical Paper

Next Decade's Aero Engines Will Be Advanced But Not Radical

1933-01-01
330049
WIDER use of air-cooled engines in aircraft, considerable reduction in engine volume, and improved fuel consumption are predicted by Mr. Fedden in tracing the course of the next ten to fifteen years in aircraft development. Pointing out that in accordance with Prandtl's theories, startling innovations in aerodynamics are not to be looked for, and that improvement of aircraft will probably follow the line of improvements in detail, the author considers the effect on future aircraft-engine design of such detailed improvements. Piston-connecting rod-crankshaft linkage will survive, he believes. Higher compression ratios will rule, and radical innovations in engines will probably be tried first on automobiles.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330041
THIS is Part 2 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. In Part 1, after analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author related how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models and presented tabulated and charted results. A study of the test methods used is presented herewith, together with comparisons made between the results obtained in Part 1 and those obtained in Part 2 from road tests of a car equipped with a so-called “floating envelope.” Fuel consumption is considered also, since full advantage of streamlining cannot be obtained without improvement of the transmission to provide for sufficient activity of a car at the lower speeds. In conclusion, the salient facts of the entire paper are summarized and seven specific suggestions for streamlining are made to car builders.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330039
THIS is Part 1 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. The study was suggested by the fact that motor-vehicles are now being driven at a speed at which most of the engine power is used to overcome air resistance, although the greater part of this resistance is unnecessary and can be eliminated by correct shaping of the vehicle body. It is a progress report of research just begun. After analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author relates how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models. Numerous illustrations are utilized to portray the models and the testing equipment, and the data obtained are tabulated and charted.
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