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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lithium Solid State Battery Developments

2000-04-02
2000-01-1588
This paper presents a summary of a recent conference entitled Advanced Lithium Solid State Batteries Workshop that was held on July 13–15, 1999. The conference was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) Division of Chemical Sciences. This paper presents a summary of the results and recommendations from the conference, including: A review of current research on solid state electrolytes and their interfaces with an emphasis on both applied and basic studies. The research includes theoretical studies of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), lithium ion transport in SPEs, and simulations of the electrolyte–cathode interface. Experimental results are presented on ion transport phenomena in SPEs (NMR and X–ray) and mechanical stresses on electrodes, among other topics.
Technical Paper

A Review of Battery Exchange Technology for Refueling of Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1586
The limited energy storage and long recharge time of electric vehicle batteries have motivated several alternatives to in-vehicle slow charging. Solutions generally fall into three categories: (1) fast charging, in which batteries are charged in-vehicle at an accelerated rate, (2) battery material reloading or refueling, in which the energy-carrying elements of the battery are physically replaced or replenished, and (3) battery interchange, involving the complete exchange of the battery pack, usually with the aid of some semi-automated mechanism. Among these options, the last, battery interchange, has tended to receive the least industry attention, but has been an expansive topic of invention and novel deployment.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Physics Behind New Suspension Concept for Automobiles

2000-05-01
2000-01-1647
The Transverse Leaf suspension with Superior Roll Axis is a new suspension concept for automobiles. It enables the load transfer during a turn to be more evenly redistributed between the two wheels on the same axle thus optimizing its tires lateral force capabilities. The TLSRA concept is made up of a single transverse leaf spring linking the middle of the sprung mass to the outer end of 2 transverse suspension arms per axle. Those transverse arms are mounted close to the middle of the sprung mass with their attachment points located above the mass centroïd. Each wheel assembly is mounted directly onto the free end of its respective suspension arm. Because body roll is now counteracting vertical load transfer during transient and permanent operating conditions, this suspension enables designers to keep spring stiffness low without compromising road handling.
Technical Paper

Speed-Sensorless Control of Induction Motors for Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1603
An electric bus system has been operating in the downtown area of Chattanooga, Tennessee for more than four years. The buses use traditional hard-switched IGBT inverters driving special induction motors with a speed sensor (tachometer) and two embedded flux-sensing windings to provide rotor speed and flux information to the motor controller for implementation of high performance field oriented control (vector control). The induction motor is oil-cooled and equipped with an internal planar gear reduction. The current system has experienced failures in both speed sensors and flux sensors because they are unreliable, susceptible to EMI and must operate in a hostile environment created by oil leaks. A speed- and flux-sensorless induction motor drive system with a new 100 kW soft-switching inverter has been implemented to replace the existing system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Storage R&D Programs at the U.S. Department of Energy-Recent Achievements and Current Status

2000-04-02
2000-01-1604
The United States supports an active research and development (R&D) program to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and accelerate their commercialization. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), supports the development of advanced energy storage and power electronics technologies, fuel cells, advanced direct-injection engines, vehicle systems, lightweight materials, and fuels. Much of this R&D directly supports the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a landmark partnership between the U.S. Federal Government and automakers with the goal of developing a six-passenger family sedan with up to 80 miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy by 2004. In these efforts, the DOE is working closely with its national laboratories, the auto industry and its suppliers, other government agencies, universities, and innovative small businesses. The Department continues to collaborate closely with the U.S.
Technical Paper

Ovonic Power and Energy Storage Technologies For the Next Generation of Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1590
The next generation of vehicles will see many new concepts involving propulsion technologies currently being developed by many of the worlds automakers and suppliers. These concepts will include pure electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with advanced internal combustion engines and fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV). These new vehicle concepts all need a high-efficiency electrical energy storage system (EESS). This paper describes the basic requirements for the next-generation vehicle technologies and emphasizes the performance of Ovonic technologies as it relates to vehicle requirements. Ovonic Battery Company (OBC) is developing and commercializing enabling technologies for the energy storage for advanced vehicles. Ovonic technologies enable the performance of advanced vehicles to exceed that of today's conventional vehicles while providing additional benefits of clean-air transportation and greatly reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Government-Industry Partnerships and Environmental and Safety Solutions

2000-04-02
2000-01-1593
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
Technical Paper

Improving the Ride & Handling Qualities of a Passenger Car via Modification of its Rear Suspension Mechanism

2000-05-01
2000-01-1630
This paper presents the results of a recent project of IKCo’s research center to modify the Paykan 1600’s rear suspension mechanism with the purpose of improving the car’s comfort, stability and handling qualities. The car was originally equipped with a solid rear axle with leaf springs. By replacing the original mechanism with a three-link mechanism with panhard bar and coil springs, the ride comfort and handling characteristics of the car were noticeably improved.3-D, nonlinear ride and handling models were developed and analyzed to determine the important kinematics and dynamic effects of the new mechanism on vehicle responses. To verify the analytical results, subjective tests were carried out on the vehicle. The results of these tests demonstrated remarkable improvement of the dynamics behavior of the car.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Package Bearings to Improve Driveline Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1785
The tapered roller bearings employed in axle centers for the pinion support are critical components in determining the noise, fuel economy and reliability characteristics of the vehicle. They represent a relatively complex mechanical and tribological system, with special requirements from the stiffness, lubrication and heat transfer points of view. This paper brings a contribution to the investigation of the intricate dependency between design parameters, environmental factors and the resultant performance of a package bearing in an integral double cup configuration. Axial compactness, reduced weight, and superior rigidity are only few of the multiple advantages recommending this type of double row bearings for automotive driveline applications. Different aspects related to the tapered roller bearing setting are analyzed in a theoretical and experimental manner, also under the consideration of the manufacturing and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

New Traction-Optimized Front Axle Limited-Slip Differential for AWD All-Terrain-Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1155
An advancement in All-Terrain-Vehicle (ATV) traction control has entered the market place with the debut of the 1999 Bombardier Traxter. The basis for this is the progressive front axle limited-slip differential. The Visco Lok‚ differential provides a speed-sensing progressive traction-optimized characteristic for maximum off-road performance. This paper includes an overview of the vehicle driveline system, functional characteristics of the differential, and torque transfer requirements.
Technical Paper

Alternative Vehicle Power Sources: Towards a Life Cycle Inventory

2000-04-26
2000-01-1478
Three alternatives to internal combustion vehicles currently being researched, developed, and commercialized are electric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. A total life-cycle inventory for an alternative vehicle must include factors such as the impacts of car body materials, tires, and paints. However, these issues are shared with gasoline-powered vehicles; the most significant difference between these vehicles is the power source. This paper focuses on the most distinct and challenging aspect of alternative-fuel vehicles, the power sources. The life-cycle impacts of battery systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are assessed. Less data is publicly available on the fuel cell; however, we offer a preliminary discussion of the environmental issues unique to fuel cells. For each of these alternative vehicles, a primary environmental hurdle is the consumption of materials specific to the power sources.
Technical Paper

Assessing Fuel Cell Power Sustainability

2000-04-26
2000-01-1490
In recent years alternative automobile power technologies have received increased attention from OEM's, special interest groups, and the public. Plausible power technologies now include internal combustion engines, batteries, fuel cells, and a variety of hybrid technologies. The merits of each of these technologies as a means to move personal and fleet transportation into the next century have been highly debated. One technology that has emerged as a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine is the fuel cell. Considering arguments on all sides of the debate, the authors describe the results of a systematic, focused examination of the sustainability of fuel cells for transportation and discuss strategies for sustainable technology design. Sustainable technologies are those that contribute to preserving or improving societal quality, the environment, and the economy for future generations.
Technical Paper

NanoMet: On-Line Characterization of Nanoparticle Size and Composition

2000-06-19
2000-01-1998
NanoMet is a new technique for on-line characterization of nanoparticle size and composition and their diffusion behavior. NanoMet consists of a pocket size diluter with tunable dilution ratio, a sampling interface for high concentration measurements and two on-line sensors. Simultaneous operation of the two sensors yields both the active surface (corona discharge diffusion charging sensor, DC) and the active surface times material coefficient (photoelectric aerosol sensor, PAS). Division of the readings provides the material coefficient which turns out to be characteristic of the particle source. Thus, information on source and toxicity of the aerosol is obtained. Thanks to the diluter and the sensitivity of the sensors the measurable concentration range stretches from (vehicle) raw emissions to ambient air / occupational exposure measurements. A particle sizing unit with a diffusion battery and a centrifuge is under development. NanoMet measures particles in-situ, i.e. as aerosol.
Technical Paper

Rheological Properties Affecting the Fuel Economy of Multigrade Automotive Gear Lubricants

2000-06-19
2000-01-2051
The paper highlights the use of a light duty axle efficiency test for evaluating the fuel economy performance of automotive gear lubricants. Both final peak axle temperatures and torque efficiencies are recorded for several multigrade automotive gear lubricants. The dependence of temperature on torque efficiencies for the gear lubricants tested are discussed for a variety of driving conditions: city, highway and severe service. Temperature and torque efficiency data show strong dependence on additive system and viscosity- temperature characteristics of the gear lubricants under different driving conditions. A discussion of lubricant rheology and its importance to maintaining film strength for adequate bearing and gear lubrication as related to optimum torque efficiency and axle temperature under varying loads and pinion speeds is also provided.
Technical Paper

Estimation of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of road vehicles by computer simulation and their validation by field measurements

2001-09-23
2001-24-0082
The paper concerns field measurements for validation of the simulation method VEMOSIM developed in Finland. The field measurements and their analyses were carried out in the following order: - Quantification of; - drive resistance coefficients by coasting; and - power train losses by acceleration; - Utilization of parameters quantified in computer simulation of fuel consumption; - Based on the drive resistance coefficients and power train losses one can use VEMOSIM and produce the fuel consumption amounts of vehicle drives on the test road sections, and finally; - Comparison of the results received from simulation with the ones received from field measurements. The test vehicle was a truck trailer combination with 7 axles and the mass was 61,060 kg. The simulated results (speed and fuel consumption) are in a very good agreement with the measured ones taking into account the inaccuracy of the input data of the road vertical alignment.
Technical Paper

Frequency Domain Sensitivity Analysis of Yaw Rate and Lateral Acceleration Response of Front Wheel Steering Vehicles

2001-01-10
2001-26-0035
A vehicle's lateral performance and handling characteristics are most important while negotiating a turn. In this paper sensitivity analysis of lateral acceleration and yaw rate for front wheel steering vehicles is carried out in the frequency domain using the first order standard and first order logarithmic sensitivity functions. A simple two degree of freedom model is used for deriving amplitude ratio and phase angle for both yaw rate and lateral acceleration. Vehicle mass, yaw moment of inertia, front and rear tire cornering stiffnesses and distance from the front axle to the centre of gravity are the design variables considered. This study predicts that the strongest parameter is the location of the centre of gravity and the weakest parameters are mass and yaw moment of inertia.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Strategy and Parametric Design for Hybrid Electric Family Sedan

2001-08-20
2001-01-2506
In this paper, the practical configuration of a power train for a parallel hybrid electric family sedan (HEFS) is introduced. Based on the analysis of the operation modes, an energy management strategy has been developed which can operate the engine within its high-efficiency range as much as possible and keep the battery state of charge (SOC) at a reasonable level. The components of the power unit (including engine, electric motor, battery, transmission and torque coupler) are calculated and discussed in detail according to the vehicle requirements for maximum cruising speed, acceleration time, gradeability, emission, and fuel efficiency. The simulation results show that the sedan would have performance comparable to that of a corresponding conventional sedan, about twice the fuel economy, and a range not limited by the battery storage energy.
Technical Paper

Development of the Jeep Commander 2 Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-08-20
2001-01-2508
On-board fuel reforming for fuel cells is an important strategic option in the development of mass production fuel cell vehicles. Based on a reforming concept similar to DaimlerChrysler's NECAR 3, the concept prototype Jeep Commander 2 implements a methanol reforming fuel cell engine with a 90 kW NiMH battery pack. Driving and dynamometer testing results show good driving performance, fuel economy and emissions. However, significant improvements are needed on fuel reforming systems to achieve competitive levels of power density, cost and reliability, compared to internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

Test Results and Modeling of the Honda Insight using ADVISOR

2001-08-20
2001-01-2537
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted a series of chassis dynamometer and road tests on the 2000 model-year Honda Insight. This paper will focus on results from the testing, how the results have been applied to NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), and how test results compare to the model predictions and published data. The chassis dynamometer testing included the FTP-75 emissions certification test procedure, highway fuel economy test, US06 aggressive driving cycle conducted at 0°C, 20°C, and 40°C, and the SC03 test performed at 35°C with the air conditioning on and with the air conditioning off. Data collection included bag and continuously sampled emissions (for the chassis tests), engine and vehicle operating parameters, battery cell temperatures and voltages, motor and auxiliary currents, and cabin temperatures.
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