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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Book

Hydrogen, The Post-Oil Fuel?

2012-11-01
Hydrogen, energy vector for the future? Or, on the contrary, limited to its current applications in the field of chemistry and refining for decades to come, possibly even until the end of the century? There is much controversy over this issue and two sides to the argument. Advocates of the hydrogen civilization consider that, following a technological revolution hydrogen will play a universal role alongside electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels, especially (but not only) in transport, leading to radical elimination of CO2 emissions. For the skeptics, and even outspoken opponents, hydrogen will remain restricted to its current applications due to the insoluble problems inherent to its generalized use, especially in transport. This book highlights the increasing and inevitable role of "energy" hydrogen – as opposed to chemical hydrogen – in the key sectors of transport and "clean" electricity production.
Book

Auto Brand

2014-01-03
The car - once everybody's dream and a key status symbol in most countries and cultures - has been extensively questioned in the last decades and in the last few years particularly. Urbanization, traffic congestion, pollution problems, heavy reliance on scarce oil supplies, safety issues and ever-growing competition, have all provided significant business challenges for the automotive industry. Many car manufacturers have had to fundamentally rethink their design, brand and marketing strategies to thrive in a savvy, consumer-led culture, and markets that are becoming increasingly restrictive in size and opportunity.
Book

Transport Revolutions

2008-01-01
This book sets out the challenges that will soon threaten modern society's dependence on low-cost transport in light of the problems posed by oil supply and climate change. It proposes organizational and technical innovations that could ensure effective, secure movement of people and goods in ways that minimize environmental impacts and make the best use of renewable sources of energy. The authors conclude that transport in the first half of the 21st century will feature at least two revolutions. One will involve the use of electric drives rather than internal combustion engines. The other will involve powering these drives directly from the electric grid rather than from on-board fuel. The authors also address revolutions in marine transport and aviation and analyze the politics and business of transport and how these will undergo profound change in the decades ahead.
Video

SAE Demo Day in Tampa - City and State Perspectives

2018-08-14
Dramatic changes in transportation are coming. Cities and states looking to be at the forefront and reap the benefits, need an engaged and informed citizenry. Hear how the SAE Demo Day in Tampa supported Florida's AV initiatives and can benefit states nationwide.
Video

SAE Demo Day in Tampa - Highlights

2018-08-14
In May 2018, SAE International in partnership with THEA and leading AV technology companies gave citizens in Tampa a chance to test ride the future. The event included a pre- and post-ride survey, a ride in an automated vehicle, interactive displays and engagement with industry experts. See highlights of the event and feedback from participants.
Technical Paper

Tire/Road Interface Airborne Noise Characteristics Generation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1731
In recent years there has been much interest in problems involving the noise prediction and reduction inside and outside the vehicle. Tire/road exterior noise has been considered to be the major vehicle exterior noise source. However, this paper describes an investigation into the characteristics of the air pumping noise mechanism in terms of source locations and directionality. Some rubber tire/road air pumping noise measurements are presented, whereas some predicted results are computed based on the boundary element method (BEM) to display some parameters which are found to be difficult to be obtained experimentally.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Design a Lean Material Delivery System in an Automotive Body Shop

1999-05-10
1999-01-1643
A simulation study was undertaken to help design a material delivery system to support lean manufacturing in an automotive body shop. Since this was a greenfield facility, simulation analysis was employed in the very early design phase of the system to determine and quantify the limiting parameters of the proposed lean material delivery system. The simulation analysis evolved with the changes in the design parameters and assumptions of the facility. The updated information from the simulation model helped the designers to evaluate alternate concepts and understand some parameters better such as, traffic congestion, manpower, and storage area requirement.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Vehicles Aerodynamics through Driving Tunnels

2000-04-02
2000-01-1579
Due to the rapid development in many parts of Egypt, construction of a wide road network is maintaining a rapid pace. But, those roads are affected by the overcrowded big cities. Thus, there is a growing need for driving tunnels to reduce the traffic problems and facilitate transportation. This issue is highly related to economic (fuel consumption) and environmental (pollution and noise) matters. Up to our knowledge, this paper represents the first numerical study to concern driving tunnels in the Middle East. Actual domestic tunnels and vehicles are computationally simulated. Investigations concentrate on flow behavior, especially overall drag coefficient and wake structure behind vehicles. Results show that many parameters, such as tunnel height, and vehicle height and speed, affect the aerodynamic characteristics through driving tunnels.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lithium Solid State Battery Developments

2000-04-02
2000-01-1588
This paper presents a summary of a recent conference entitled Advanced Lithium Solid State Batteries Workshop that was held on July 13–15, 1999. The conference was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) Division of Chemical Sciences. This paper presents a summary of the results and recommendations from the conference, including: A review of current research on solid state electrolytes and their interfaces with an emphasis on both applied and basic studies. The research includes theoretical studies of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), lithium ion transport in SPEs, and simulations of the electrolyte–cathode interface. Experimental results are presented on ion transport phenomena in SPEs (NMR and X–ray) and mechanical stresses on electrodes, among other topics.
Technical Paper

A Review of Battery Exchange Technology for Refueling of Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1586
The limited energy storage and long recharge time of electric vehicle batteries have motivated several alternatives to in-vehicle slow charging. Solutions generally fall into three categories: (1) fast charging, in which batteries are charged in-vehicle at an accelerated rate, (2) battery material reloading or refueling, in which the energy-carrying elements of the battery are physically replaced or replenished, and (3) battery interchange, involving the complete exchange of the battery pack, usually with the aid of some semi-automated mechanism. Among these options, the last, battery interchange, has tended to receive the least industry attention, but has been an expansive topic of invention and novel deployment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Response Data Measured During Severe Maneuvers

2000-05-15
2000-01-1644
During the past few years, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center has generated a plethora of reliable vehicle test data during their efforts to study vehicle rollover propensity. This paper provides further analyses of a small selection of some of the data. The analyses provided here derive in part from the previous work, trying to answer some of the questions spawned by earlier analyses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several new concepts to the study of vehicle roll stability and provide case studies using the results available from the NHTSA testing. Results from several severe maneuvers are studied in detail to gain understanding of vehicle response in these cases.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Physics Behind New Suspension Concept for Automobiles

2000-05-01
2000-01-1647
The Transverse Leaf suspension with Superior Roll Axis is a new suspension concept for automobiles. It enables the load transfer during a turn to be more evenly redistributed between the two wheels on the same axle thus optimizing its tires lateral force capabilities. The TLSRA concept is made up of a single transverse leaf spring linking the middle of the sprung mass to the outer end of 2 transverse suspension arms per axle. Those transverse arms are mounted close to the middle of the sprung mass with their attachment points located above the mass centroïd. Each wheel assembly is mounted directly onto the free end of its respective suspension arm. Because body roll is now counteracting vertical load transfer during transient and permanent operating conditions, this suspension enables designers to keep spring stiffness low without compromising road handling.
Technical Paper

Using μ Feedforward for Vehicle Stability Enhancement

2000-05-01
2000-01-1634
Vehicle stability augmentation has been refined over many years, and currently there are commercial systems that control right/left braking and throttle to create vehicles that remain controlled when road conditions are very poor. These systems typically use yaw rate and lateral acceleration in their control philosophy. The tire/road friction coefficient, μ, has a significant role in vehicle longitudinal and lateral control, and there has been associated efforts to measure or estimate the road surface condition to provide additional information for the stability augmentation system. In this paper, a differential braking control strategy using yaw rate feedback, coupled with μ feedforward is introduced for a vehicle cornering on different μ roads. A nonlinear 4-wheel car model is developed. A desired yaw rate is calculated from the reference model based on the driver steering input.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Determining Tire Traction on Ice

2000-05-01
2000-01-1640
The development of tires traction models is very important for tire mechanics and automobile dynamics. Based on principle of thermal balance and theory of frictional melting, a new method for determining tire traction on an iced highway was presented. It was shown that the computed results could compare with the available test results. The advantages of a car with CTI-DS travelling on ice or compact snow were demonstrated in theory and in experiment. It was recommended that an automobile be operating at lower inflation pressures to increase tire traction force on the above highways.
Technical Paper

Speed-Sensorless Control of Induction Motors for Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1603
An electric bus system has been operating in the downtown area of Chattanooga, Tennessee for more than four years. The buses use traditional hard-switched IGBT inverters driving special induction motors with a speed sensor (tachometer) and two embedded flux-sensing windings to provide rotor speed and flux information to the motor controller for implementation of high performance field oriented control (vector control). The induction motor is oil-cooled and equipped with an internal planar gear reduction. The current system has experienced failures in both speed sensors and flux sensors because they are unreliable, susceptible to EMI and must operate in a hostile environment created by oil leaks. A speed- and flux-sensorless induction motor drive system with a new 100 kW soft-switching inverter has been implemented to replace the existing system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Storage R&D Programs at the U.S. Department of Energy-Recent Achievements and Current Status

2000-04-02
2000-01-1604
The United States supports an active research and development (R&D) program to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and accelerate their commercialization. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), supports the development of advanced energy storage and power electronics technologies, fuel cells, advanced direct-injection engines, vehicle systems, lightweight materials, and fuels. Much of this R&D directly supports the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a landmark partnership between the U.S. Federal Government and automakers with the goal of developing a six-passenger family sedan with up to 80 miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy by 2004. In these efforts, the DOE is working closely with its national laboratories, the auto industry and its suppliers, other government agencies, universities, and innovative small businesses. The Department continues to collaborate closely with the U.S.
Technical Paper

Ovonic Power and Energy Storage Technologies For the Next Generation of Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1590
The next generation of vehicles will see many new concepts involving propulsion technologies currently being developed by many of the worlds automakers and suppliers. These concepts will include pure electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with advanced internal combustion engines and fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV). These new vehicle concepts all need a high-efficiency electrical energy storage system (EESS). This paper describes the basic requirements for the next-generation vehicle technologies and emphasizes the performance of Ovonic technologies as it relates to vehicle requirements. Ovonic Battery Company (OBC) is developing and commercializing enabling technologies for the energy storage for advanced vehicles. Ovonic technologies enable the performance of advanced vehicles to exceed that of today's conventional vehicles while providing additional benefits of clean-air transportation and greatly reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Government-Industry Partnerships and Environmental and Safety Solutions

2000-04-02
2000-01-1593
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
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