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Experience with Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Validation of OBD in Powertrain Electronics Software

These advanced checks have resulted in development of many new diagnostic monitors, of varying types, and a whole new internal software infrastructure to handle tracking, reporting, and self-verification of OBD related items. Due to this amplified complexity and the consequences surrounding a shortfall in meeting regulatory requirements, efficient and thorough validation of the OBD system in the powertrain control software is critical. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides the environment in which the needed efficiency and thoroughness for validating the OBD system can be achieved. A HIL simulation environment consisting of engine, aftertreatment, and basic vehicle models can be employed, providing the ability for software developers, calibration engineers, OBD experts, and test engineers to examine and validate both facets of OBD software: diagnostic monitors and diagnostic infrastructure (i.e., fault memory management).

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.

Mainstream and Main Street Hybrids

Several technological advancements have enabled hybrid technology to become a viable option in the commercial truck market. Although hybrid trucks are becoming more mainstream, they are not the right alternative fuel solution for every application. When matched with the right duty cycle, hybrid technology can provide a significant cost savings. Due to these advancements and anticipated benefits, hybrid commercial trucks are forecasted to become a significant part of the commercial truck market. Presenter Glenn Ellis, Hino Motors Sales USA Inc.

Spotlight on Design Insight: Using Turbocharging in New Engine Design

In “Using Turbocharging in New Engine Design” (9:23), engineers from Schaeffler Group USA and McLaren Performance Tech explain what turbocharging is, and what it can do to improve both the power output of an engine and its fuel efficiency. Another engineer from the General Motors Powertrain group talks about how turbocharging was used in the new engine design for the Cadillac CT6. This episode highlights: The lessons learned from when turbocharging was first used to help heavy-duty trucks go uphill The experience acquired from car racing using turbo-charged engines The advantages of using turbo charging to decrease the size of engines without losing power output Also Available in DVD Format To subscribe to a full-season of Spotlight on Design, please contact SAE Corporate Sales: or 1-888-875-3976.

Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers

During the past decade, there has been a steady increase in studies addressing rollover crashes and injuries. Though rollovers are not the most frequent crash type, they are significant with respect to serious injury and interest in rollovers has grown with the introduction of SUVs, vans, and light trucks. A review of Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers examines relevant conditions for field roll overs, vehicle responses, and occupant kinetics in the vehicle. This book edited by Dr. David C. Viano and Dr. Chantal S. Parenteau includes 62 technical documents covering 15 years of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses.
Technical Paper

Effect of Six-Wheel Vehicles on Highway Design

TWO distinct phases of the subject are the physical and the economic, both of which are included in the conclusions stated in the paper, based on investigations made by the Bureau of Public Roads. It is as pertinent to inquire what effect the highways have on the motor-vehicle as to inquire what effect the motor-vehicle has on the highways. Mutual adjustment must be made if real economy is to result. Two general conclusions that may be drawn from the observations presented are that the six-wheel vehicle offers a desirable and effective answer to (a) the problem of the load in excess of the normal desirable limit of weight for the four-wheel truck, and (b) the problem of the load equal to the heavier four-wheel truck in areas where road conditions do not permit the maximum wheel-load concentration.
Technical Paper

Application of Motor Transport to the Movement of Freight

AFTER defining the function of transport as the transfer of persons and things from one part of the earth's surface to another in the minimum time and at the minimum cost, and dividing modern transport into human, animal and mechanical, the author proceeds to describe the part played by commercial motor-vehicles in the Country's economic structure. Since food and drink are necessities of life, the first examples of motor-truck transportation discussed include the haulage of milk, bakery products, livestock, produce, vegetables and fruit. These are followed by the use of the motor-truck in local and long-distance general hauling, retail delivery service of dry-goods and chain-store supplies, the oil industry and for the transportation of express matter. A section follows on the use made of this form of transportation by public utilities and municipalities.
Technical Paper

Applying the Motor-Vehicle to Business

MANY FACTORS gradually forced a recognition of motor-vehicles as necessary adjuncts to business, and now the motor-vehicle is being called upon more than ever before to serve also as a labor-saving device. The author believes that present-day business will demand further development of this nature. The groups interested in establishing and developing the motor-vehicle in business are the manufacturers thereof, the commercial organizations operating vehicles for their individual needs, the commercial operators supplying service for a variety of customers, and the railroads. The author pays tribute to the manufacturers for the present dependability of motor-vehicles and comments upon the extension of motor-vehicle service in the respective fields of the three other groups. Present competition in all forms of business makes the problem of cost accounting equally serious for all users of commercial vehicles, in the author's opinion.
Technical Paper

Commercial Application of Diesel Engines in Heavy-Duty Motorcoaches and Trucks

COMPARATIVE tests were made, both on the block and in the same motorcoach chassis, of a 525-cu.-in. gasoline and a 495-cu.-in. Diesel engine. The block tests are reported fully in charts, including curves for torque and power against piston displacement and engine weight. Corrected curves are given on the basis of equal piston displacement and for the Diesel engine throttled enough so that it would not smoke. Road tests included fuel consumption, acceleration, hill climbing and top speed, which are also recorded in charts. Other sections of the paper deal with costs of manufacture and maintenance and present and prospective conditions as to supply and cost of Diesel fuel. Stress is laid on the facts that automotive Diesel engines require a much higher grade of fuel than do the larger and slower Diesel units and that more gasoline than fuel oil can be obtained from a given amount of crude.
Technical Paper

Automobile Engineering Progress

GENERAL DESIGN and detail mechanical developments that have been made in the last year and incorporated in automobile, truck and motorcoach models for 1932 are reviewed by the author, who also points out noticeable trends in a number of directions. He deals in order with the cars as a whole and with each major component, from the powerplant to the tires and body, as found in many leading makes. Decision of the industry not to announce the details of new models until the end of the year, at or immediately before the opening of the New York Automobile Show in January, interfered with the presentation at this time of a complete picture of all the improvements made in American motor-vehicles, but enough information is believed to be given to show the more important developments and the ways in which the automotive engineers have responded to the desire of the times for greater refinement and efficiency in automobiles.
Technical Paper

Refrigerator Motor-Trucks

SALES potential of refrigerator trucks seems to be several hundred new units annually, according to the authors. Motor-truck transportation of meat, milk, ice cream, fruits and farm produce demands refrigeration, as does delivery-truck transportation of butter, cheese, yeast and dough. Large trucks are needed for the former class and smaller ones for the latter, but the refrigeration problems are fundamentally the same. Desirable body-construction is outlined and the different refrigerating systems are analyzed with regard to quantity of refrigeration needed, type of insulation and insulating material available. Mechanical systems are discussed under electric, power take-off and separate gasoline-engine drives for the compressor. The most desirable location for a refrigerating unit on a truck also is considered.
Technical Paper

Ventilation of Motorcoach and Motor-Truck Bodies

This report of the S.A.E Subcommittee on Motorcoach and Motor-Truck Ventilation states that, to the motor-vehicle operator, ventilation means the elimination of gas odors from the coach body or truck cab; but to the public it means, no doubt, simply proper interior ventilation. Adequate interior ventilation becomes a necessity because of the stigma against buses which has arisen due to their characteristic odor. The investigation of the Subcommittee over millions of miles of operation indicates that there is no one cause of fumes, and certainly no single cure. In the report, discussion is included relating to the causes of gas fumes, such as fumes due to leaks and to engine condition; exhaust-pipe location; carbureter adjustment; the importance of proper driving; engine maintenance and body ventilation. Ten causes of “gassing” are listed.
Technical Paper

The Use of Trailers with Motor-Trucks

TRAILER registration figures for the entire United States are given to show the rapid increase in the use of trailers in the last seven years, and, for comparison, State registrations of all motor-vehicles in 1931 are given. To account for the relatively more rapid increase in trailers than in trucks, factors favoring the use of trailers are mentioned and illustrative examples of operation are briefly described. The factor of first importance is legislation, which in general is stated to have promoted the use of trailers to distribute the weight of heavy loads over more axles and wheels; but in some States the laws and regulations have a serious adverse effect. Next to legislation, savings in hauling costs through the use of trailers account for the increase in their numbers, and comparative figures of the cost of hauling per 100 lb. per 100 miles by truck, by truck and trailer and by rail are given to show the economy.
Technical Paper

Self-Maintenance as Compared with Service-Station Maintenance

THE AUTHOR says that the conditions under which motor-vehicles operate are so varied that it is extremely difficult to arrive at any fixed or definite rule governing the method of maintaining motor-vehicle fleets, and to determine what the minimum number of vehicles should be to justify the establishment of a self-maintenance organization. Considering that a large-scale operator is one who operates 40 vehicles or more and that a small-scale operator is one who operates less than 40 vehicles, it is obvious that the problem of the large-scale operator with equipment separated into small fleets in remote localities is in the same class as that of a small-scale operator. With such a condition existing, it seems reasonable to assume that “service-station maintenance” would be more economical considering miles traveled, time out of service and the like, which really should be considered.
Technical Paper


The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
Technical Paper


Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
Technical Paper


In the first part of the paper, a general quantitative comparison of air, water and oil-cooled cylinders is given as it relates to the subject of heat-transfer and temperature drop. Unfortunately, the discussion does not include experimental data, but the assumptions are stated clearly and a large range of values is covered in Table 2 so that any desired values can be chosen. A thorough and comprehensive discussion of the steam or the radio-condenser type of cooling is given under the headings of Steam Cooling Systems, Characteristics of Steam Cooling Systems, Cooling Capacity of Radiators Used To Condense Steam and Present State of Development. In the second part, an attempt is made to give a thorough but brief discussion of the performance or of the operating characteristics of radiators from the point of view of the car, truck or tractor designer. The cooling of aircraft engines is not considered.
Technical Paper


The magnitude of the business of the American Railway Express Co. requires that careful consideration be given to the details necessary for economical operation. The equipment comprises 12,755 vehicles, of which approximately one-third are motor-driven and have a carrying capacity of more than one-half the total. On July 1, 1918, when all the express companies were merged into one organization, it was found that the motor-vehicle equipment included 59 different makes and 131 different models. Among the 377 trucks built by one company were 21 different models. Diversity of equipment, of course, complicates the maintenance problem and adds to the cost. Additional expense is incurred frequently by purchasing and experimenting with parts offered by makers of accessories such as carbureters, spark-plugs, wheels and the like. Careful inspection, adequate lubrication and the adoption of “stitch-in-time” methods will save needless expense.