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Camera-based Light Measurement Techniques

This recommended practice describes the application of digital cameras to measurement of photometric quantities in the photometric laboratory.

Fatigue Modeling/Testing & CAE Durability Analysis, 2017

This collection of papers focus on state-of-the-art fatigue theory and advanced development in fatigue testing, material behavior under cyclic loading, and fatigue analysis methodology & research in the ground vehicle industry. Studies and discussions on innovative and improved fatigue theory/methods in will be discussed along with and engineering applications of CAE durability analysis.

Spotlight on Design: Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting

“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting” (30:20), Molded Fiber Glass Companies, known for its deep involvement in the creative development of the molded fiberglass process for the Corvette, demonstrates the manufacturing of sheet molded composite for fiberglass parts. Tanom Motors introduces the Tanom Invader, a blend between an automobile and a motorcycle made exclusively with composite materials. Finally, Euro-Composites demonstrates the manufacturing of honeycomb core material made out of aramid paper and phenolic resin used in aircraft structures.

Spotlight on Design Insight: Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive

“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.

Biodiesel Permeability in Polyethylene

This paper reports solubility, diffusivity and permeability data for soy and rapeseed methyl esters in polyethylene together with comparisons with methyl oleate and linoleate. These data were used to discuss the reliability of predictive models for diffusion and solubility of additive type molecules into semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers. Presenter Emmanuel Richaud

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center

Building Security In: The SPARK Approach to Software Development

Software products in the automotive industry are by nature widely distributed and costly to update (recall), so high reliability is clearly of utmost importance. Just as clearly, the increasing reliance on remote access to such systems, for diagnostic and other purposes, has made security an essential requirement, and traditional techniques for software development are proving to be inadequate in dealing with these issues. Correctness by Construction is a software design and development methodology that builds reliability and security into the system from the start. It can be used to demonstrate, with mathematical rigor, a program's correctness properties while reducing the time spent during testing and debugging. This paper will discuss the use of Correctness by Construction, and its accompanying SPARK language technology, to improve automotive systems' security and reliability. (The approach can also account for safely issues, although that is not the focus of this paper.)

Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC

Component Interoperability For Automotive Safety Issues

There is a need to accelerate the automotive industry's alert notification and distribution process for quality, reliability, counterfeit, and safety issues that reside in specific electronic components or circuit card assemblies. This paper describes an alert procedure for an entire supply chain that can improve operational efficiency and reduce the costs associated with responding to and resolving those issues. Interoperability: Ability to work with each other. It is frequently unnecessary for separate resources to know the details of how they each work. But they need to have enough common ground to reliably exchange messages quickly without error or misunderstanding. Presenter William Crowley, QTEC Inc.

Enabling Exponential Growth of Automotive Network Devices while Reducing the Wired Communication Infrastructure with Security, Reliability, and Safety

The CAN protocol has served the automotive and related industries well for over twenty-five (25) years now; with the original CAN protocol officially released in 1986 followed by the release of CAN 2.0 in 1991. Since then many variants and improvements in CAN combined with the proliferation of automotive onboard microprocessor based sensors and controllers have resulted in CAN establishing itself as the dominant network architecture for automotive onboard communication in layers one (1) and two (2). Going forward however, the almost exponential growth of automotive onboard computing and the associated devices necessary for supporting said growth will unfortunately necessitate an equivalent growth in the already crowded wired physical infrastructure unless a suitable wireless alternative can be provided. While a wireless implementation of CAN has been produced, it has never obtained real traction within the automotive world.

Hidden Costs in Motor Specifications

It is a challenge to write a good motor specification. Typical spec. problems are omitted or ambiguous requirements, or overly tight tolerances that drive up cost but not value. These problems create hidden penalties in cost, performance, reliability, and development time. This presentation will describe common problems in traction motor specifications and associated penalties, as well as recommendations to avoid them. Topics will include spec.?s for demagnetization, mechanical considerations, torque ripple, performance, and others. Presenter David A. Fulton, Remy Inc.
Technical Paper

Powerplant Economics - Piston Displacement versus Horsepower per Dollar

AN ENDEAVOR is made herein by the author to prove by argument and charts based on data that the greatest result per dollar of car cost is obtained by the greatest piston displacement obtainable per dollar expended rather than by the greatest horsepower per dollar. Maximum result per dollar is a major principle of economics, but horsepower per dollar and piston displacement per dollar are controversial economic fundamentals. The latter is declared to be the accepted principle in the low-price car field, and the author asserts that it should be accepted in the high-price field. Price class controls the cost of the powerplant, and ingenuity of the engineering and manufacturing departments will control piston displacement. The trends in the different price classes as regards car weight, piston displacement, ratio of weight to piston displacement, and potential and actual performance in the items of economy, durability, acceleration and speed, are shown by charts and discussed.
Technical Paper


Detroit Section Paper - Since a gear is a product of the cutting tool, the gear-cutting machine and the operator, it can be no more accurate than the combined accuracy of these fundamental factors. All gear manufacturers aim to eliminate split bearings, high and low bearings, flats and other inaccuracies in tooth contour, because a gear having teeth the contours of which comply with the geometrical laws underlying its construction is by far the most satisfactory. Illustrations are presented to convey an understanding of the geometrical principles involved, together with other illustrations of testing instruments and comments thereon. The application of these instruments is termed quality control, which is discussed in some detail under the headings of hob control, machine control and gear control.
Technical Paper


Coining-press development is outlined and the author tells how such machinery was adapted to speed-up the production of automobile parts, such as forged arms and levers, by a squeezing process that superseded milling or spot-facing methods. The presses used are very rugged in construction and have the appearance of a plain-type punch-press, except for the knuckle that operates the ram. This knuckle is coupled to a crank by a connecting-rod or link. As the crank revolves, it straightens the knuckle. The pressure transmitted to the ram is many times greater than that which could be produced through a single-acting direct-connected crank-operated type of machine. An additional advantage of the knuckle movement is in the application of pressure at the end of the downward stroke. The position of the ram at the end of the stroke is controlled by a screw-actuated wedge.
Technical Paper


General considerations that affect the attainment of adequate lighting are mentioned, it being stated that proper lighting of the interior of a motorbus is influenced by limitations peculiar to the service, such as vibration, scant headroom, a restricted energy supply and relatively large voltage-variations. Available types of bus-lighting equipment are analyzed as to their suitability, from six different standpoints that are stated. “Glare” is defined and means of obviating it are suggested, inclusive of a discussion of desirable types of finish for the interior with regard to reflecting surfaces. The severe vibration produced by many motorbuses demands head-lamps of more rugged construction than that used for the headlighting of private cars. Eight essentials for motorbus head-lamps are specified. A very large percentage of the glare and poor illumination of the motor vehicles on the roads results from improper adjustment or the lack of any means for adjustment of the head-lamps.
Technical Paper


First sketching the history of the sleeve-valve engine, the author reviews the valve action of the Knight, discusses combustion-chamber shape and comments upon permissible compression, remarking also on the subject of carbon deposit in the sleeve-valve type of engine. Endurance tests of Knight engines are described and, in the author's opinion, should constitute a reliable guide in judging its performance characteristics. From the beginning, one of the foremost claims for the sleeve-valve engine has been that the sleeve type of valve permits much greater port openings and more rapid opening and closing of the ports. In view of this claim, it is said to be rather strange that sleeve-valve engines have not been more of a factor in speed contests; but the explanation undoubtedly is that exceedingly large valve-capacity can be obtained with poppet valves if quiet valve-action is not a consideration, according to the author.
Technical Paper

Generators and Motors for Gas-Electric Motorcoach Drive

ELECTRIC transmission is being applied to motorcoaches because of certain advantages which it has over mechanical transmission, such as increased acceleration, easier driving, smoother operation, and greater freedom in the arrangement of the units. The paper relates principally to the performance characteristics and design features of some of the motors and generators used for this purpose. The speed-torque and electrical characteristics of the generators and motors are described, both separately and as related to the engine performance and the speed and tractive effort requirements of the vehicle. The efficiency is compared with that of the mechanical transmission, and methods of electric braking are described. Important mechanical requirements for the motors and generators are discussed, and methods of mounting for both the single and double-motor types of drive are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Idiosyncrasies of Valve Mechanisms and Their Causes

AFTER mentioning the detrimental effects of valve bouncing and valve-spring surge upon the power and durability of an engine and on noise, the authors list four factors that contribute to perfect action of the valve mechanism. These are: the spring forces, as related to the speed and weight of the moving parts; the rigidity of the parts; the cam contour; and the design of the spring. Four different methods of investigating valve behavior are then described in detail. The telescopic point-by-point indicator and the stroboscopic projector of the valve motion were the first of these to be developed. The former gives an accurate measure of the valve position at any point of the cycle, and the latter makes possible a visual inspection of the valve operation. These two instruments were used together, but they were found to be rather slow in operation.
Technical Paper

Carbon Deposits with Heavy-Duty Engines

THE present paper, which is an extension of previous work done at the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research in connection with carbon deposits from lubricating oils, deals with the results of tests made on heavy-duty engines in actual service. In making these tests 18 sleeve-valve-engine motorcoaches of the Pittsburgh Motor Coach Co. were used. These were divided into three groups of six vehicles each; the first group was lubricated with a paraffin-base oil of normally high carbon-residue value; the second, with a paraffin-base oil of extremely low carbon-residue value; and the third, with a typical naphthene oil. The fuel was an average grade of motor gasoline. In general, no deviation was made from the regular maintenance practice but all steps of maintenance and servicing were under the supervision of the authors.