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White Paper

Digital Standards Systems—An Integrated Approach to Engineering Standards Usage

2020-07-21
WP-0013
Industry standards are key enablers in helping businesses around the meet regulatory requirements, keep costs down, gain market access, and instill consumer confidence. SAE International, a standards development organization (SDO) critical to the transportation industry, works in partnership with industry to develop and distribute standards important in automotive and aerospace product development, product performance, and quality management. Historically, industry standards were formatted with the intention of being distributed in print. This changed with the evolution of new electronic formats, and now most standards are available in PDF or EPUB. While progressive at the time, these formats are now proving inadequate due their optimization for readability by the human eye versus consumption by electronic endpoints.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Truck Side-Skirt Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-1593
The underbody of a truck is responsible for an appreciable portion of the vehicle’s aerodynamic drag, and thus its fuel consumption. This paper investigates experimentally the flow around side-skirts, a common underbody aerodynamic device which is known to be effective at reducing vehicle drag. A full, 1/10 scale European truck model is used. The chassis of the model is designed to represent one that would be found on a typical trailer, and is fully reconfigurable. Testing is carried out in a water towing tank, which allows the correct establishment of the ground flow and rotating wheels. Optical access into the underbody is possible through the clear working section of the facility. Stereoscopic and planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) set-ups are used to provide both qualitative images of and quantitative information on the flow field.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1603
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Future Legislation on Noise and Emission of Vehicles and the Impact on the Design of Exhaust Systems

2016-06-15
2016-01-1843
Over the past few years, the measurement procedure for the pass-by noise emission of vehicles was changed and new limit values have been set by the European Parliament which will come into force within the next few years. Moreover, also the limits for chemical emissions such as NOx, particulates and CO2 have been lowered dramatically and will continue to be lowered according to a roadmap decided not only in Europe but also in other markets throughout the world. This will have an enormous impact on the design of future passenger cars and in particular on their powertrains. Downsizing, downspeeding, forced induction, and hybridization are among the most common general technology trends to keep up with these challenges. However, most of these fuel saving and cleaner technologies also have negative acoustic side effects.
Technical Paper

Directivity Measurements of Low Frequency Sound Field Radiated from an Open Cylindrical Pipe with a Hot Mean Flow

2016-06-15
2016-01-1821
Radiation of sound from an open pipe with a hot mean flow presents one of the classic problems of acoustics in inhomogeneous media. The problem has been especially brought into focus in the last several decades, in the context of noise control of vehicle exhaust systems and jet engines. However, the reports on the measurements of the radiated sound field are still rare and scattered over different values of subsonic and supersonic flow speeds, cold and hot jets, as well as different sound frequency ranges. This paper focuses on low Mach number values of the mean flow speed and low frequencies of the incident (plane) sound waves inside an unflanged cylindrical pipe with a straight cut. It presents the results of the far-field radiation pattern measurements and compares them with an existing analytical model from the literature. The mean flow inside the pipe reached Mach number values up to 0.25 and temperature up to 300°C.
Technical Paper

Aeraulic and Aeroacoustic Experimental Characterization of Academic and Industrial HVAC Flaps

2016-06-15
2016-01-1811
The noise radiated inside the car cabin depends on many sources such as the embedded equipments like the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) module. An HVAC is a compact and complex system composed of several elements: blower, flaps, thermal exchangers, ducts… Air provided by an HVAC is blown by a blower passing through different components and then distributed to car cabin areas. Interactions between airflow and the HVAC fixed components generate noises that emerge in the car cabin. CEVAS project, managed by the automotive equipment manufacturer Valeo, is aiming to develop a prediction tool which will provide HVAC noise spectrum and sound quality data. The tool is based, in particular, on aeroacoustic characterization of individual elements and associations of elements.
Technical Paper

Numerical Aeroacoustics Prediction of a Ducted Diaphragm Chaining RANS-LES and DES Results to a Parallel Boundary Element Method

2016-06-15
2016-01-1809
In the framework of noise reduction of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems designed for cars, the present study deals with the numerical prediction of aeroacoustics phenomena encountered inside such devices for industrial purposes, i.e. with a reasonable CPU time. It is then proposed in this paper to assess the validity of the chaining, via Lighthill-Curle analogy, of a DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) resulting from the CFD code OpenFOAM (ESI Group) versus a RANS-LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and a BEM calculation resulting from the Vibro/Aeroacoustics software VA One (ESI Group) on an academic case of air passing through a rectangular diaphragm at a low Mach number. The BEM code being parallelized, the performances of DMP (Distributed Memory Processing) solution will also be assessed.
Journal Article

Simulation and Optical Diagnostics to Characterize Low Octane Number Dual Fuel Strategies: a Step Towards the Octane on Demand Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2164
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategies to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates occurrence of knocking. Therefore, downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies. The aim of the current research program is to adapt the fuel Research-Octane-Number (RON) injected in the combustion chamber to prevent knock occurrence and keep combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON naphtha-based fuel (Naphtha, RON 71) and a high-RON octane booster (Ethanol, RON107). The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement as a function of engine operating conditions. Hence, it becomes crucial to understand and predict the mixture preparation, to quantify its spatial and cycle-to-cycle variations and to apprehend the consequences on combustion behavior - knock especially.
Technical Paper

High-Speed UV and Visible Laser Shadowgraphy of GDI In-Cylinder Pool Fire

2016-10-17
2016-01-2165
For better understanding, model development and its validation of in-cylinder soot formation processes of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, visualization of piston surface fuel wetting, vaporization and soot formation processes of in-cylinder pool fire via high-speed UV (266nm) and visible (445nm) laser shadowgraphy was attempted in an optically accessible Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (RCEM). A direct-injection, spark-ignition and single-shot combustion event was achieved in the RCEM under engine-equivalent, simplified and well-defined conditions operated with engine speed 600 rpm, compression ratio 9.0, equivalence ratio 0.9 and natural aspiration. The tested fuel was composed of 70% iso-octane and 30% toluene by volume and the UV absorption by toluene enabled visualization of the in-cylinder fuel distribution.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of Soot Formation Mechanisms and Possible Countermeasures on a Turbocharged Port Fuel Injection SI Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2162
Despite the known benefits of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines, port fuel injection (PFI) remains a highly relevant injection concept, especially for cost-sensitive market segments. Since particulate number (PN) emissions limits can be expected also for PFI SI engines in future emission legislations, it is necessary to understand the soot formation mechanisms and possible countermeasures. Several experimental studies demonstrated an advantage for PFI SI engines in terms of PN emissions compared to DI. In this paper an extended focus on higher engine loads for future test cycles or real driving emissions testing (RDE) is applied. The combination of operating parameter studies and optical analysis by high-speed video endoscopy on a four-cylinder turbocharged SI engine allows for a profound understanding of relevant soot formation mechanisms.
Journal Article

Compositional Effects of Gasoline Fuels on Combustion, Performance and Emissions in Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2166
Commercial gasoline fuels are complex mixtures of numerous hydrocarbons. Their composition differs significantly owing to several factors, source of crude oil being one of them. Because of such inconsistency in composition, there are multiple gasoline fuel compositions with similar octane ratings. It is of interest to comparatively study such fuels with similar octane ratings and different composition, and thus dissimilar physical and chemical properties. Such an investigation is required to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasoline fuels that show similar knock characteristics in a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, but may behave differently in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines or any other engine combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2159
Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Mg2Si1-xSnx Thermoelectric Materials

2016-10-17
2016-01-2160
In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
Technical Paper

Multiple Injection Strategy Investigation for Well-Mixed Operation in an Optical Wall-Guided Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (WG-SIDI) Engine through Flame Shape Analysis

2016-10-17
2016-01-2161
One major drawback of spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines is increased particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbon emissions at high load, due to wall wetting and a reduction in available air/fuel mixing time when compared to port-fuel injection (PFI). It is therefore necessary to understand the mechanics behind injection strategies which are capable of reducing these emissions while also maintaining the performance and efficiency of the engine. This study investigates the effect of varying the number fuel injection events and equivalence ratio on the operation of a wall-guided SIDI (WG-SIDI) engine. Of particular interest is how increased mixture homogeneity achieved by the double injection events impacts in-cylinder conditions and flame development.
Technical Paper

α-Pinene - A High Energy Density Biofuel for SI Engine Applications

2016-10-17
2016-01-2173
This study proposes a novel biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engine, α-pinene (C10H16), which is non-oxygenated and thus has a gravimetric energy density comparable to that of hydrocarbon fuels. The ignition characteristics of α-pinene were evaluated in an ignition quality tester (IQT) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The measured ignition delay time (IDT) of α-pinene is 10.5 ms, which is lower than that of iso-octane, 17.9 ms. The estimated research octane number (RON) for pinene from IQT is 85. A temperature sweep in IQT showed that that α-pinene is less reactive at low temperatures, but more reactive at high temperatures when compared to isooctane. These results suggest that α-pinene has high octane sensitivity (OS) and is suitable for operation in turbocharged SI engines. With these considerations, α-pinene was operated in a single cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Increasing Modern Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency: A Comprehension Study of High CR and Atkinson Cycle

2016-10-17
2016-01-2171
Increasing global efficiency of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine is nowadays one of the main concerns in automotive research. A conventional way to reduce DISI engine fuel consumption is through downsizing. This approach is well suited to the current homologation cycle as NEDC, but has the drawback to induce over-consumptions in customer real driving usage. Moreover, the driving cycles dedicated to EURO 6d and future regulations will evolve towards higher load operating conditions with higher particulate emissions. Therefore, efficiency of current DISI has to be strongly increased, for homologation cycle and real driving conditions. This implies to deeply understand and improve injection, mixing and flame propagation processes.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2174
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

On Demand Octane Number Enhancement Technology by Aerobic Oxidation

2016-10-17
2016-01-2167
For the purpose of developing onboard gasoline reforming technology for higher octane number fuel on demand, octane number enhancement of gasoline surrogate by aerobic oxidation using N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyst was investigated. At first, octane numbers of the oxygen-containing products from alkane and aromatic compound were estimated using a fuel ignition analyzer. As a result, not only alcohol but also ketones and aldehydes have higher octane numbers than the original alkanes and aromatic compound. Next, gasoline surrogate was oxidized aerobically with N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst and cobalt catalyst at conditions below 100 °C. As a result, fuel molecules were oxidized to produce alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids. N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst with higher solubility in gasoline surrogate has higher oxidation ability. Furthermore, the estimated octane number of the oxidized gasoline surrogate improves 17 RON.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Speciation in Blended Gasoline-Natural Gas Operation on a Spark-Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2169
The high octane rating and more plentiful domestic supply of natural gas make it an excellent alternative to gasoline. Recent studies have shown that using natural gas in dual fuel engines provides one possible strategy for leveraging the advantages of both natural gas and gasoline. In particular, such engines been able to improve overall engine efficiencies and load capacity when they leverage direct injection of the natural gas fuel. While the benefits of these engine concepts are still being explored, differences in fuel composition, combustion process and in-cylinder mixing could lead to dramatically different emissions which can substantially impact the effectiveness of the engine’s exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to explore this topic, this study examined the variations in speciated hydrocarbon emissions which occur for different fuel blends of E10 and compressed natural gas and for different fuel injection strategies on a spark-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Testing on a Port Fuel Injected LPL EGR and D-EGR® Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2170
A turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in a low-pressure loop and Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine configuration. Both engine architectures were operated with a low and high octane gasoline as well as three ethanol blends. The core of this study focused on examining combustion differences at part and high loads between the selected fuels and also the different engine configurations. Specifically, the impact of the fuels on combustion stability, burn rates, knock mitigation, required ignition energy, and efficiency were evaluated. The results showed that the knock resistance generally followed the octane rating of the fuel. At part loads, the burn rates, combustion stability, and EGR tolerance was marginally improved with the high ethanol blends. When combustion was not knock or stability limited, the efficiency differences between the fuels were negligible. The D-EGR engine was much less sensitive to fuel changes in terms of burn rates than the LPL EGR setup.
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