Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Acting Piezoelectric Prototype Injector Nozzle Flow for Partial Needle Lifts
Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.