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NHTSA Lightweighting and Safety Studies

Historically, studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in support of CAF� rulemaking indicate that lightweighting vehicles lead to degraded safety. However, recent studies provided to NHTSA show that good designs for lightweighting can provide equivalent safety. This presentation highlights two studies funded by NHTSA in part to address these latest findings. The first is a George Washington University study, �Investigate Opportunities for Lightweighting Vehicles Using Advanced Plastics and Composites.� The second is an Electricore study, �Mass Reduction for Light-Duty Vehicles for Model Years 2017-2015. The findings presented include that it is possible to lightweight vehicles and provide equivalent safety and that costs drive designers toward the use of advanced metals.

Keynote Presentation: Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record

Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will focus on what a small team of ambitious and talented engineers can do when they have a dream! Back in 2009, a team of graduates from Imperial College London came together to do something radical to change the public perception of electric vehicles forever. They came up with the idea to design and build the world's longest range electric car, and then drive it down the longest and toughest road in the world; the 26,000km Pan-American Highway! Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will share the story from start to finish, and will also focus on the technology used to achieve such a feat, with particular mention of the electric motors. Presenter Alexander Schey, Imperial College London

Mainstream and Main Street Hybrids

Several technological advancements have enabled hybrid technology to become a viable option in the commercial truck market. Although hybrid trucks are becoming more mainstream, they are not the right alternative fuel solution for every application. When matched with the right duty cycle, hybrid technology can provide a significant cost savings. Due to these advancements and anticipated benefits, hybrid commercial trucks are forecasted to become a significant part of the commercial truck market. Presenter Glenn Ellis, Hino Motors Sales USA Inc.

A Journalist's Perspective on Hybrids

Automotive journalists are uniquely located to gain a broad perspective of the field. We learn from specialists, the engineers who perform the actual work, in relatively neutral settings. We also communicate with our readers, the ultimate consumers of both your products and ours. Here I propose to share elements of several of these interactions, especially those pertaining to the coming array of plug-in hybrids from GM, Toyota and Porsche. I also propose to give a brief update of KERS, Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems, in Formula 1. Presenter Dennis J. Simanaitis, Road & Track Magazine
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling for Semi-trailer Tank Vehicle

This paper treats the study case of semi-trailer structures by using Finite Element Method (FEM). It has the main proposal to stablish an automatic procedure for model preparation, that means: meshing generation, design loads and constraints applications, for a family of semi-trailer from 15000 to 35000 dm3 capacity, automatically built by the computer program GERTAP with a very few user interference. For this reason, the program does not demand any FEM expertise so that engineers can focus main construction problems without excessive concerning about model theoretical characteristics and model mistakes. At present moment, we are able to develop static analysis, with use of equivalent accelerations, in order to compute weighting, braking and turning loads. Soon, in a very near future, we are going to apply dynamics analysis that will simulate the actual bad conditions of Brazilian roads, so that fatigue-cracking problems could be prevented in design stage.
White Paper

Rethinking the Way We Move Beyond COVID-19

As the world grapples to combat the spread of COVID-19, our city streets have nearly emptied. Unprecedented community mitigation interventions have been applied in efforts to “flatten the curve” and slow the transmission of the virus. Social distancing measures have dramatically altered our daily behavior; notably, in the ways we do or do not move. This report seeks to identify emerging trends in urban mobility and road safety in respect to COVID-19. This is followed by a discussion of how we could shape our mobility future as communities begin to reopen.

Interaction Between Heavy Vehicles and Roads

Written by David Cebon, Research Director of the Cambridge vehicle dynamics consortium, this award winning publication focuses on the interaction between heavy vehicles and roads. Organized into six sections, contents include: road response and damage; static loading considerations; dynamic tire forces; road damage due to dynamic tire forces; suspension assessment.

Navigation and Intelligent Transportation Systems

Navigation and Intelligent Transportation Systems contains 40 papers covering the technical and functional aspects of these systems including: 3D mapping, route guidance, cellular phone access, electronic compasses, and the history and future of navigation systems. The book also covers the important role of navigation in Intelligent Transportation Systems concerned with traffic management, traveler information, vehicle control systems, commercial vehicle operations, and public and rural transportation systems. The book concludes with a chapter on the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, a joint program between the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Federal Transit Administration.
Technical Paper

Shock- Absorber Characteristics

AN effort is made to determine the essentials of an ideal shock-absorber and to describe the types that approach or depart from this ideal. Mathematical analysis is not used, but judgment is based on the experience of the author with various types. The requirements of a satisfactory shock-absorber are defined and the methods used by the author in culling out certain shock-absorbers that fail to meet these requirements are outlined. By means of a machine based on the principle, of a steam-engine indicator, the energy required to move a shock-absorber throughout its cycle at varying speeds is measured and charts are obtained. When these charts are compared with a characteristic shape of diagram of a shock-absorber found from repeated trials on the road to give the most satisfactory riding, the merits or shortcomings of any other shock-absorber can be deduced from the difference in shape.
Technical Paper

Effect of Six-Wheel Vehicles on Highway Design

TWO distinct phases of the subject are the physical and the economic, both of which are included in the conclusions stated in the paper, based on investigations made by the Bureau of Public Roads. It is as pertinent to inquire what effect the highways have on the motor-vehicle as to inquire what effect the motor-vehicle has on the highways. Mutual adjustment must be made if real economy is to result. Two general conclusions that may be drawn from the observations presented are that the six-wheel vehicle offers a desirable and effective answer to (a) the problem of the load in excess of the normal desirable limit of weight for the four-wheel truck, and (b) the problem of the load equal to the heavier four-wheel truck in areas where road conditions do not permit the maximum wheel-load concentration.
Technical Paper

Application of Motor Transport to the Movement of Freight

AFTER defining the function of transport as the transfer of persons and things from one part of the earth's surface to another in the minimum time and at the minimum cost, and dividing modern transport into human, animal and mechanical, the author proceeds to describe the part played by commercial motor-vehicles in the Country's economic structure. Since food and drink are necessities of life, the first examples of motor-truck transportation discussed include the haulage of milk, bakery products, livestock, produce, vegetables and fruit. These are followed by the use of the motor-truck in local and long-distance general hauling, retail delivery service of dry-goods and chain-store supplies, the oil industry and for the transportation of express matter. A section follows on the use made of this form of transportation by public utilities and municipalities.
Technical Paper

Applying the Motor-Vehicle to Business

MANY FACTORS gradually forced a recognition of motor-vehicles as necessary adjuncts to business, and now the motor-vehicle is being called upon more than ever before to serve also as a labor-saving device. The author believes that present-day business will demand further development of this nature. The groups interested in establishing and developing the motor-vehicle in business are the manufacturers thereof, the commercial organizations operating vehicles for their individual needs, the commercial operators supplying service for a variety of customers, and the railroads. The author pays tribute to the manufacturers for the present dependability of motor-vehicles and comments upon the extension of motor-vehicle service in the respective fields of the three other groups. Present competition in all forms of business makes the problem of cost accounting equally serious for all users of commercial vehicles, in the author's opinion.
Technical Paper

Profitable Motorcoach Operation

CONSIDERATION is given by the author to possibilities of radical changes in design of the motorcoach to meet the increasing demands of transportation, and he outlines and analyzes the practices of the company he represents in connection with the operation and maintenance of a fleet of 57 motorcoaches, all of the same make, which supplement the street-railway system in Youngstown, Ohio. The tendency toward a narrowed field for public-transportation service because of the increasing use of the private automobile is discussed and, in the author's opinion, the urban transportation-company will find the field for the motorcoach and the field for the street-car; but he states that the total use of the combined agencies will be far less than would be the case if the conditions of 10 years ago still prevailed.
Technical Paper

Antiknock Research Coordinates Laboratory and Road Tests

ALTHOUGH the C.F.R. Engine-Test Method of knock evaluation, now designated as the Research Method, is accurate and reproducible to a remarkable degree, investigation developed that it was not adequately simulating service conditions as judged by the most critical technician or the less critical lay user. To bring the laboratory method in line with road evaluation of a fuel, a definite technique of road test was evolved that, while not to be considered in commercially determining octane numbers, was regarded by the Committee as sufficiently accurate and reproducible to serve as the first step in the development of a satisfactory laboratory method. With a satisfactory road-test method available, the next step was to test a representative group of fuels and then develop a laboratory method which closely approximates the road results.
Technical Paper

Independent Wheel Suspension

THE study of composite front axles, called fallaciously “independent wheels,” deals with the accelerations due to the inequalities of the road surface and with the resonance of the car caused by the vibrations thus produced. This study cannot be treated separately but must be taken as part of the complete problem of the resonance of the whole car to the road, according to Mr. Broulhiet. Extensive experiments have confirmed that vertical suspension, road-holding qualities, coachwork resonance and the resonance of the steering gear are all interdependent. Therefore, the problem of road resonance must be dealt with as a whole, if one wishes to grasp the problem in its complexity and have that scientific backing necessary for rapid progress in the mind of the designer. Mr. Broulhiet outlines, from personal research in this field, four basic conditions to obtain the best results. The geometry and equilibrium conditions of proposed mechanical realizations are analyzed.
Technical Paper


Irritated by statements of some alleged economists to the effect that, except for changes in the appearance of motor-cars, the automobile industry has stood still for the last five years, the author of this paper, who is affectionately regarded as the dean of automobile engineering in this Country, spoke at meetings of the Philadelphia and Metropolitan Sections of the Society on the many car and engine improvements made in recent years. Mr. Crane's remarks, as reported stenographically and embodied in this paper, deal chiefly with engines. He points out that extensive highway improvement and the consequent public demand for higher car speed have forced engineers to design more powerful and more versatile engines without increasing the weight. High-speed engines were of necessity the answer, and these brought the problem of eliminating roughness of operation and preventing transmission of vibration to the chassis.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Shock-Absorber

HYDRAULIC shock-absorber characteristics are analyzed by the authors with the aid of indicator cards made on a machine designed and built for the purpose. The machine is shown in a diagrammatic drawing and is stated to have been used with much satisfaction for more than two years. Curves of the action of dry and lubricated springs with and without shock-absorbers attached are shown and the statement is made that the resistance of the shock-absorber does not increase fast enough, as the speed of link movement increases, to damp the spring suitably at both large and small deflections. Indicator cards from shock-absorbers of several types reveal the effects of incorrect design of the valves and of dirt in the oil passages. The effect of change in viscosity of the working fluid as a result of temperature changes is discussed and attempts to obtain a fluid that is not thus affected are declared to be fruitless.
Technical Paper

Practical Tractive-Ability Methods

THE TRACTIVE ability of a motor-vehicle, as stated by the author, is the measure of its power to overcome outside resistances to its translation, based on the tangential force exerted by the driving wheels at their points of contact with the road. The propelling force is derived from the engine. To compute the “tangential force” of the foregoing definition it is engine torque that interests us rather than the horsepower, he states. If the horsepower is given, it can be converted into torque. After analyzing this point mathematically, the author discusses typical tractive-factors of modern motor-trucks so that he is enabled to develop an economic factor mathematically and thus be prepared to discuss tractive resistance as opposed to tractive effort. Air resistance is considered in detail as a particularly important factor concerning motorcoaches, and the author's points are backed up by diagrams and charts as well as by numerous tables of statistical and computed data.
Technical Paper

Oil Cooling and Oil-Coolers

INCREASES in horsepower, compression pressure and engine speed, which have occurred in the last five years, have imposed additional duties on the lubrication system, points out the author, who declares that bearing failure is the most serious trouble resulting on the road from the use of oil temperatures exceeding 300 deg. fahr. To reduce this temperature to a figure between 210 and 230 deg. fahr., heat must be dissipated from the oil at a rate in excess of 250 B.t.u. per min. or a heat equivalent of approximately 6 hp. Two types of oil-cooler, one using air and the other water as the cooling medium, are available at present. The former is extensively employed in connection with air-cooled engines, particularly on airplanes, but the latter is in more general use on automobiles.
Technical Paper


The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.