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Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2017

This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.

Brake Rotor Thickness Variation and Lateral Run-Out Measurements

The scope of this recommended practice is to establish definitions and recommended methods for the measurement of lateral run-out and disc thickness variation in the laboratory and vehicle for passenger cars and light duty trucks up to 4546 kg gross vehicle weight. This recommended practice will breakdown the instrumentation (sensors and sizes), test setup, and data processing.

Validation of Compressibility Test Systems for Friction Materials

This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the validation process required for test systems used to measure deflection or compressibility of friction materials and friction material assemblies for passenger cars, light trucks, and commercial vehicles equipped with hydraulic or air brake systems, and using disc or drum brakes.

Component Level EPB Actuation NVH

The component level EPB actuation NVH task force should review existing specifications and measurement methods used in the industry to find any commonalities and propose a recommended method for measuring and evaluating component level EPB actuation NVH to be used as a common standard throughout the industry. The task force should acknowledge the following objectives: 1. Task force should review existing industry specifications and further define the scope for creating the new standalone component level EPB actuation NVH standard a. The common standard should be universally recognized and accepted by the automotive industry b. Provide confidence that acceptable vehicle related NVH results will be achieved if vehicle level testing is completed c. Provide clear verifiable acceptance criteria 2. Task force must lay out steps and timing to complete the development of the new common standard. 3.

Electric Park Brake Sizing

The scope of this new recommended practice should include, but not necessarily be limited to: 1. Define vehicle operating conditions used to drive MOC-EPB actuator design and selection 2. Define brake corner operating conditions (e.g. temperature and state of burnish) used to drive MOC-EPB actuator design and selection 3. Define actuator operating conditions (e.g. temperature, voltage, current limit, and state of wear) used to drive MOC-EPB actuator design and selection 4. Define methodology for addressing part to part variation in performance

Dynamometer Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure

This procedure will outline the necessary test equipment (fixturing, dynamometer, data acquisition system, etc.) and test sequence required to test for low-frequency brake noise on a brake noise dynamometer. It is intended to complement SAEJ2521, which focuses on high-frequency brake squeal.

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2018

This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.

Development of an Electrically-driven Intelligent Brake Unit

An electrically-driven, intelligent brake unit has been developed, to be combined with a regenerative braking system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which went into production in 2010 - 11. The brake pedal force is assisted by an electrically driven motor, without using vacuum pressure, unlike conventional braking systems. The actuator can be implemented to coordinate with a regenerative braking system, and to have adjustable pedal feel through use of a unique pressure-generating mechanism and a pedal-force compensator. In this paper, we describe features of the actuator mechanism and performance test results Presenter Yukio Ohtani, Hitachi Automotive Systems

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Tire NVH Optimization for Future Mobility

Vehicle NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is one of the most critical customer touchpoints which may lead to buying decisions. The importance of Noise inside the cabin is increasing day by day because of the new era of E-mobility and autonomous driving. Noise source could be the engine, powertrain, tyre, suspension components, brake system, etc. depending on driving conditions. Among these, tire noise is being identified as biggest contributor at constant mid-speed driving where engine and powertrain operate at minimum noise and wind noise is also at a moderate level. This driving condition becomes very significant for electric vehicles where engine noise is replaced by motor noise which is a tonal noise at very high frequency. This makes the improvement of tire noise levels quintessential for good cabin acoustic feel. This demands a proactive approach to develop low noise tire platforms for future mobility by leveraging research tools and best practices in the industry.

Deflection Measurement for Brake pads and / or Assemblies Using Defined Segment Applicator and Applied Stress

This SAE Standard specifies a method for measuring the deflection of friction materials and disc brake pad assemblies to be used in road vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating below 4336 kg. This SAE test method differs from SAE J2468 in the preload and maximum load applied to the test sample when deflection is measured. It adopts the material applied stress levels found in ISO 6310 (0.5 to 8MPa) using a 25mm diameter flat plunger.

Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

With production and planning for new electric vehicles gaining momentum worldwide, this series of five volumes on this subject provides engineers and researchers with perspectives on the most current and innovative developments regarding electric and hybrid-electric vehicle technology, design considerations, and components. The entire set features 62 SAE technical papers, originally published from 2008 through 2010. Individual volumes cover the following topics: Overviews and Viewpoints Batteries Engines and Powertrains Braking Systems and NVH Considerations Fuel Cell Hybrid EVs
Technical Paper

Power Brakes for Passenger-Cars

THE use of a power medium in brake control points at once to the possibility of simplifying the brake system so that its characteristics, once established, can be expected to remain uniformly effective throughout extended periods without adjusting, with correspondingly long life of brake-linings. The author says also that, if the greater retarding effect possible with mechanically operated four-wheel brakes is to be fully realized, it is necessary to do one of three things: increase the pedal pressure, increase the brake leverage and consequently the pedal movement, or increase the “self-energizing” effect. The vacuum-type brake described is stated to be an amplifier which provides power to supplement muscular strength and assists the driver to apply the service brake, thereby reducing the required pedal stroke and pedal pressure without interfering with the regular service-brake hook-up.
Technical Paper

Data on Machinability and Wear of Cast Iron

THE hardness or chemical composition of an iron is, by itself, no indication of the wearing property and machinability of the iron. Irons containing a large amount of free ferrite have been found to wear rapidly, whereas others having considerable pearlite or sorbite in their structure show good wearing properties. The presence in cylinder-blocks of excess-carbide spots or of phosphides of high phosphorus-content is deleterious, because such spots wear in relief and the material ultimately breaks out, acting as an abrasive that scores the surfaces. Causes of wear in cylinder-blocks are discussed, and nickel, or nickel and chromium, intelligently added to the iron is suggested as a means of obtaining the correct microstructure for a combination of good wearing properties and machinability.
Technical Paper

Automobile Practice in Europe

EUROPEAN trends in some of the major features of engine, chassis and body design and in several items of equipment are reviewed in this paper; which is based on the observation and analysis of the British engineer editor who is its author, and of the staff of The Motor, of London, during the last five years. Although American automotive engineers who follow European practice are acquainted with most of the designs here shown and described briefly, this paper is of interest and value as showing the present principal lines along which development is taking place abroad. Popular chassis types are divided into three classes: (a) the “baby” four-cylinder car of 7 to 9 hp., Royal Automobile Club rating; (b) the “family-type” four-cylinder car of 12 to 14-hp. rating; and (c) the light six-cylinder car of 15 to 20-hp. rating. Typical acceleration curves for well-known cars in each of these classes are given, as well as cylinder dimensions, volumetric capacity, car weight and price.
Technical Paper


Brakes have three functions: (a) maintaining a car at rest, (b) reducing the speed of a vehicle or bringing it to a stop and (c) holding a vehicle to a constant speed on a descending grade. The kinetic energy of a moving vehicle is directly proportional to the weight of the vehicle and to the square of its speed. The amount of heat produced in the braking surfaces of a vehicle descending a given grade for a given distance will be the same whether the speed be high or low, but the rate of heat production will vary inversely as the speed. In addition to the retarding effect of the braking system a braking effect is constantly present that depends on the tractive resistance of the vehicle at various speeds and on the engine itself. Wind resistance and the resistance of the engine when the throttle is closed also produce retarding effects that assist in the work of braking.