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The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-11-17
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Video

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

2012-05-23
Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center
Video

Eco+ Solutions in High Performance Plastics from DSM for Automotive.

2012-05-22
DSM will present various application solutions in High Performance Plastics enabling to significant weight or friction reduction and thus to reduced fuel consumption and/or emission levels, and on top of that to lower system costs. Typical Eco+ Solutions Examples to be presented are: - Friction Reduction: Nylon 46 in chain tensioners yielding up to 1 % fuel reduction - Weight Reduction (metal-to-plastic conversion): Nylon 46 with long term temperature resistance upto 230 C in turbo components, Nylon 6 in oil pans/sumps, PET in plastic precision parts, Nylon 46 in gears, many other examples - Electrification: Nylon 46 in start/stop and e-motor components, TPC in HV cables - System Cost optimization: High Flow PA6 in various components, TPC in Brake Tubes - Improved LCA: biobased materials as PA410 and TPC-Eco Typical Application Solutions concern: air induction systems, engine and transmission components, electrical systems, structural&safety parts.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Technical Paper

Automobile Induction-Systems and Air-Cleaners

1928-01-01
280051
AFTER indicating the trend of requirements in induction systems, the author discusses air-cleaners, carbureters and inlet manifolds. Particular attention is paid to improvements in centrifugal air-cleaners, that result in only slight pressure loss and in high cleaning efficiency. These improvements have been made by changing the body outline; by the addition of a diffuser, to make the resistance as small as possible; and by proportioning the vanes, as to angle and number, to increase the cleaning efficiency with only slight loss in pressure. Carbureters are considered briefly, only because of their interrelation with air-cleaners and manifolds. Inlet manifolding for four, six, and eight-cylinder-inline engines is studied, with variations in port arrangement. Recommendations are made as to the cross-sectional areas and form to secure best distribution of the mixture and adequate vaporization.
Technical Paper

A New Electrical Engine-Indicator

1928-01-01
280050
AFTER enumerating the fundamental qualities that make an engine indicator successful, the authors classify existing indicators and discuss a few of the more successful ones. Then is introduced the new electrical indicator, which makes its record from variation between the resistances of two carbon-piles which form the branches of a Wheatstone bridge. The pressure element is a thin diaphragm flush with the inner walls of the combustion-chamber. This is connected by an invar rod to a cantilever spring, the displacement of which reduces the resistance in one carbon-pile and increases the resistance in the other. The diagram is recorded by either an ordinary oscillograph or a portable cathode-ray oscillograph. Diagrams taken with this indicator are presented to illustrate its performance under varied conditions. A natural frequency of more than 3000 cycles per second makes possible the faithful recording of phenomena having frequencies as high as 800 cycles per second.
Technical Paper

Service Characteristics of Light Alloys

1929-01-01
290064
ALUMINUM and magnesium, being the lightest commercial metals and therefore the most suitable for aircraft construction, are discussed in their pure and alloyed states. Physical properties of the pure metals and their alloys are given and the effects of adding small quantities of alloying elements are shown. Heat-treating as a means of increasing the strength per unit weight of the alloys is discussed at length, together with the effects of natural aging and artificial aging at elevated temperatures and of quenching in hot and in cold water after heat-treating. The several types of corrosion are considered and resistance to corrosion of the metals and their various alloys are discussed. Protection afforded to aluminum alloy by a surface coating of pure aluminum is described, and other methods are mentioned.
Technical Paper

Bearing Bronzes with Additions of Zinc, Phosphorus, Nickel and Antimony

1930-01-01
300012
SEVEN basic copper-tin-lead bearing-bronzes having high copper contents were studied by the application of various mechanical tests, such as Brinell hardness, resistance to impact, resistance to repeated pounding and resistance to wear. The effects of various additions were investigated by preparing test bearings of the same base alloys with additions of zinc, phosphorus, nickel and antimony, taken singly, and applying the same tests to these. The preparation of the test castings and the methods of testing are described in detail. The chemical analyses are given for the 40 different alloys tested; and the results of the various tests on each group of alloys are reported and discussed in detail, with the observations charted and tabulated for convenient reference. A tabulation of the specifications of 54 different bearing bronzes now in use is included in the paper. Dr. Dowdell presented and discussed∗ the paper for the authors.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330041
THIS is Part 2 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. In Part 1, after analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author related how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models and presented tabulated and charted results. A study of the test methods used is presented herewith, together with comparisons made between the results obtained in Part 1 and those obtained in Part 2 from road tests of a car equipped with a so-called “floating envelope.” Fuel consumption is considered also, since full advantage of streamlining cannot be obtained without improvement of the transmission to provide for sufficient activity of a car at the lower speeds. In conclusion, the salient facts of the entire paper are summarized and seven specific suggestions for streamlining are made to car builders.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330039
THIS is Part 1 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. The study was suggested by the fact that motor-vehicles are now being driven at a speed at which most of the engine power is used to overcome air resistance, although the greater part of this resistance is unnecessary and can be eliminated by correct shaping of the vehicle body. It is a progress report of research just begun. After analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author relates how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models. Numerous illustrations are utilized to portray the models and the testing equipment, and the data obtained are tabulated and charted.
Technical Paper

ON ELECTRIC-FURNACE CAST-IRON - As an Aid to Designer and Foundryman - THE DESIGNER'S VIEWPOINT

1933-01-01
330035
Mr. Woolson points out that designers are continually trying to make 1 lb. do the work of 2 lb. but are prone to underestimate the important possibilities of alloyed cast iron in automotive engineering. Recent improvements in methods of handling molten metal for casting lends these methods to the obtaining of uniformity of castings and physical properties. Some readily obtainable properties of electric-furnace iron are strength approximately double that of ordinary cast iron, increased wear resistance, reduced growth characteristics, heat resistance and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Automobile Engineering Progress

1932-01-01
320023
GENERAL DESIGN and detail mechanical developments that have been made in the last year and incorporated in automobile, truck and motorcoach models for 1932 are reviewed by the author, who also points out noticeable trends in a number of directions. He deals in order with the cars as a whole and with each major component, from the powerplant to the tires and body, as found in many leading makes. Decision of the industry not to announce the details of new models until the end of the year, at or immediately before the opening of the New York Automobile Show in January, interfered with the presentation at this time of a complete picture of all the improvements made in American motor-vehicles, but enough information is believed to be given to show the more important developments and the ways in which the automotive engineers have responded to the desire of the times for greater refinement and efficiency in automobiles.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Shock-Absorber

1932-01-01
320048
HYDRAULIC shock-absorber characteristics are analyzed by the authors with the aid of indicator cards made on a machine designed and built for the purpose. The machine is shown in a diagrammatic drawing and is stated to have been used with much satisfaction for more than two years. Curves of the action of dry and lubricated springs with and without shock-absorbers attached are shown and the statement is made that the resistance of the shock-absorber does not increase fast enough, as the speed of link movement increases, to damp the spring suitably at both large and small deflections. Indicator cards from shock-absorbers of several types reveal the effects of incorrect design of the valves and of dirt in the oil passages. The effect of change in viscosity of the working fluid as a result of temperature changes is discussed and attempts to obtain a fluid that is not thus affected are declared to be fruitless.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Rear-Engined Streamline Car

1932-01-01
320030
CONVENTIONAL automobile design is no longer suited to conditions of higher driving speeds brought about by road improvement and of smaller but more powerful engines. Study of aerodynamics and analysis of forces and motions induced in a car by location of the center of gravity and distribution of weight led the author, an ex-British naval officer, to conclude that the streamline form and the disposition of the engine behind the rear axle would result in a car giving the greatest comfort in riding and economy of power at high speed and one of pleasing appearance. The reasoning that resulted in these conclusions is set forth, and reference is made to a number of unconventional designs produced in Europe and America, such as front-wheel-drive and rear-engined cars.
Technical Paper

Practical Tractive-Ability Methods

1930-01-01
300044
THE TRACTIVE ability of a motor-vehicle, as stated by the author, is the measure of its power to overcome outside resistances to its translation, based on the tangential force exerted by the driving wheels at their points of contact with the road. The propelling force is derived from the engine. To compute the “tangential force” of the foregoing definition it is engine torque that interests us rather than the horsepower, he states. If the horsepower is given, it can be converted into torque. After analyzing this point mathematically, the author discusses typical tractive-factors of modern motor-trucks so that he is enabled to develop an economic factor mathematically and thus be prepared to discuss tractive resistance as opposed to tractive effort. Air resistance is considered in detail as a particularly important factor concerning motorcoaches, and the author's points are backed up by diagrams and charts as well as by numerous tables of statistical and computed data.
Technical Paper

Streamlining Applied to Automobiles

1931-01-01
310002
STUDY of aerodynamics was first made in connection with airships and airplanes, asserts the author, and streamlined forms were developed as a result of wind-tunnel tests made by Paul Jaray in Austria and Germany before the World War and supported by mathematical studies. The findings were applied to improvement of the shape of Zeppelin airships, and later the streamline principles were incorporated in automobile designs. The author presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of streamlined automobile models in this Country which showed reduction by almost one-half in the wind resistance at speeds of 40 and 50 m.p.h., as compared with the conventional American sedan model. Results are also given of road tests of a standard Chrysler car and a Jaray-Chrysler car, using the same chassis model and each seating five passengers. The streamlined car is shown to coast farther, accelerate faster and consume much less fuel than the conventional sedan model.
Technical Paper

The Field for Synthetic Lubricating Oils

1931-01-01
310033
ONE method employed in a fundamental investigation of the composition of lubricating oils as it affects the viscosity characteristics has involved the synthesis of viscous oils by polymerizing a wide range of olefins with a condensing agent, such as aluminum chloride. Many thousand gallons of synthetic lubricating oils have been made within the last two or three years from olefins produced by cracking paraffin waxes. Details of the process have been published previously and hence are not included. The present paper deals with the characteristics of two such oils that have been synthesized in commercial quantities. The raw materials and the process of manufacture make these more expensive than ordinary motor oils, but their temperature-viscosity characteristics make them desirable for use in transmission and steering mechanisms and in hydraulic shock-absorbers, as they are less susceptible than the usual oil to viscosity changes with changes of temperature.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS OF THE RESEARCH DEPARTMENT

1922-01-01
220032
Dr. Dickinson outlines the history of the Research Department since its organization, indicates why the universities are the principal bases of operation for pure research, describes how the department functions as a clearing-house with regard to research data and comments upon the bright prospects for the future. He enumerates also the facilities the Research Department has for the coordination of research problems. The practical achievements of the Department have resulted from its recent concentration upon the three major projects of study with regard to the tractive resistance of roads, with reference to fuel and to testing programs, and of an effort to render financial assistance to the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines that would enable these Bureaus to continue their elaborate research programs, details of all of this work being included.
Technical Paper

SOME NOTES ON BRAKE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION1

1923-01-01
230040
Brakes have three functions: (a) maintaining a car at rest, (b) reducing the speed of a vehicle or bringing it to a stop and (c) holding a vehicle to a constant speed on a descending grade. The kinetic energy of a moving vehicle is directly proportional to the weight of the vehicle and to the square of its speed. The amount of heat produced in the braking surfaces of a vehicle descending a given grade for a given distance will be the same whether the speed be high or low, but the rate of heat production will vary inversely as the speed. In addition to the retarding effect of the braking system a braking effect is constantly present that depends on the tractive resistance of the vehicle at various speeds and on the engine itself. Wind resistance and the resistance of the engine when the throttle is closed also produce retarding effects that assist in the work of braking.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE FINISHING-VARNISH

1923-01-01
230016
Annual Meeting and Detroit Section Paper - As the success or failure of the finish of an automobile depends largely on the finishing-varnish, a plea is made for more scientific analyses of the problems of automobile finishing and more care in selecting and applying a suitable varnish. The qualities to be desired in a finishing-varnish are divided into two classes: the shop qualities and the service qualities. The shop qualities include color, body or viscosity, working, flowing, setting, hardening, fullness and the safety of working. The service qualities, or those that enable the varnish to withstand the various conditions of use, include resistance to break-down under the chemical action of the actinic rays of sunlight, to the destructive action of moisture and the alkalis in mud and soap, to expansion and contraction, to vibration and to abrasion.
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