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New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction space intensive, current research activities focus on the active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Occupant Ride Comfort by GA Optimized PID Control Active Suspension System

The main objective of this work is to enhance the occupant ride comfort. Ride comfort is quantified in terms of measuring distinct accelerations like sprung mass, seat and occupant head. For this theoretical evaluation, a 7- degrees of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was established and the system investigation was limited to vertical motion. Besides, this work also focused to guarantee other vehicle performance indices like suspension working space and tire deflection. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced in the vehicle model and optimized with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA). Actuator dynamics is incorporated into the system. The objective function for PID optimization was carried out using root mean square error (RMSE) concept.

Automotive Microcontrollers, Volume 2

This book contains 49 papers covering the past eight years (2000-2007) of research on automotive microcontrollers, providing a look at innovative design trends and the latest applications. Topics covered include: Microcontroller Design Concepts; Microcontroller Networking; System Testing/Diagnosis; Implementation Examples The book also includes editor Ronald K. Jurgen's introduction ("New Microcontroller Architectures Spark Innovative Applications") and a concluding section on future developments in automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

The deLavaud Automatic Transmission

MENTIONING the various attempts that have been made to secure continuous progressive changes of gear in the automobile, the author states that nothing of this sort is of value unless it is automatic. He has designed a transmission consisting of a wabble-plate which actuates six connecting-rods that operate as many roller clutches on the rear axle. Changes in speed result from varying the inclination of the wabble-plate, and this is controlled automatically through the combined effects of inertia and the reaction of resistance. This transmission has been applied to a number of cars of different weights, some of which have seen much service. The action of the various elements of the transmission is analyzed with the aid of drawings, diagrams and formulas, and the proportions that have been found most successful are stated. This transmission is combined with a gearless differential and a planetary reverse-gear.
Technical Paper


The military aviation services pay a phenomenal price due to turbine engine stall. Several of the major factors which comprise a substantial portion of the total price are presented. Included are weapon system development time, operational limitations, field maintenance problems, overhaul costs and accident rates. Also presented, in a general fashion, are several technical approaches to the solution of turbine engine stall. Fundamental research and orderly development of basic engine components, power control systems, and airframe and installation factors are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need for tighter control of production tolerances and the requirement for united efforts in the integration of components into a complete system.
Technical Paper

Automatic Control Systems Satisfying Certain General Criteria on Transient Behavior

An analytic method for the design of automatic controls has been developed by these authors. The method starts from certain arbitrary criteria on the behavior of the controlled system. It then gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criteria used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.
Technical Paper

Rolling Wheels Gather No Skids

A CONTROL system is described that has been successfully preventing premature rotation stoppage of airplane wheels when too much braking is used. The system has now been applied to a truck in a series of tests conducted on an icy roadway. It is shown that wheels exert their greatest braking effect when the brakes are applied almost to the point where the wheels lock. Thus, when used on airplanes, the device (1) detects when a brake is about to lock the wheel, (2) releases the brake pressure to allow the wheel to pick up speed, and (3) again permits brake application. This cycle is then repeated until a stop is attained. Similarly, when used on ground vehicles, the device functions by sensing the impending wheel lock, and then relays a signal to actuate the brake valve. The tests showed that individual wheel control devices can prevent out-of-control skidding in trucks and buses, and jackknifing of tractor-trailers.
Technical Paper


THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

Microelectronics in Fuel Controls

This paper describes the contribution of a microelectronic fuel control in meeting the demanding requirements of an airborne propulsion turbine engine. Trends in requirements such as control parameters, cost, weight, size and availability are shown. A typical control system is illustrated. Advantages of digital and analog methods of implementing the computation and logic are given. Manufacturing techniques of the microelectronics are described together with significant contributions of the microelectronic engine control in meeting rapidly stiffening requirements.
Technical Paper

Selection of a Least “Cost” Hydraulic System for Launch Vehicle Engine Position Control

The general aspects of selecting an optimum or least cost hydraulic thrust vector control system is covered. Cost includes: l) development cost, 2) unit cost, 3) the cost of weight, 4) the cost of failures, 5) the cost of low system response, 6) the cost of a short system life or operating time and 7) the cost of a long development time. This paper describes the development of a computer program for system cost investigations. The need for such investigations is discussed and results for a few specific systems presented.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Digital Hydraulic Servo

In many applications, control system equations are being processed in a digital computer. Digital-to-analog (D/A) converters are then used to make command signals compatible with analog final control elements. It is more desirable to design a highly integrated system which uses a digital servo and does not require D/A conversion. However, digital hydraulic servo valves have not yet been highly developed, and some types are quite complex. It was the object of this program to design a hydraulic digital servo which uses the standard, proven two-stage electrohydraulic servo valve. This was done by having the servo valve itself perform the function of a D/A converter. It accepts digital signals in computer format and quantizes actuator velocity. Initial design studies were performed, followed by analog and digital computer studies. A breadboard unit was built and evaluated. Two main conclusions have thus far been reached: 1.
Technical Paper

AC Electric Drive For Off Highway Electric Vehicles

An example of an alternating current electric drive system is described together with a discussion of the control system. An estimate of current status of this type of drive system is presented together with future projections. Challenges exist for improvements which could alter the future projections and some of these are discussed. Only generalized conclusions are drawn on the applicability of these drives for industrial application.
Technical Paper

So You Want Better Quality?

The management techniques described show how quality can be improved on a scheduled and controlled basis. Key considerations are an understanding of what is meant by quality, what are the causes of poor quality, the means for “putting a number on quality,” and the development of a system of numerical and administrative controls for management’s use. Management’s role in supplying company motivation and utilization of the controls provided by the product quality problem control system is discussed.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations and Selection of Controls for Vessels Equipped With Controllable-Pitch Propellers

The propulsion control system of a vessel equipped with a controllable pitch propeller is discussed along with factors influencing its design. These factors are the hull, propeller, and prime mover (diesel, gas-turbine, and steam) characteristics and the vessel's operating requirements. The system is also discussed in relationship to such special problems as vessels with a high displacement to horsepower ratio. The appendix includes a complete description of the propulsion control system in 352 ft passenger ferries.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure Timed Injection and Control System for the Otto Cycle Engine

The present use of the carburetor to supply fuel to the Otto cycle engine has placed it in a difficult competitive position with the diesel engine, which has successfully operated with a fuel injection system. The purpose of this study was to consider the feasibility of utilizing a low pressure injection system for the Otto cycle engine. The proposed design is discussed in detail. As the author points out, this system will allow design changes in the engine that would be impossible if the carburetor were retained, and thus considerable improvement in performance and efficiency can be realized for the Otto cycle engine.