Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Training / Education

Metallurgy of Steel: Principles

Anytime
This online course teaches the phases and microstructures that form in steels, their effects on steel properties, the microstructure changes that occur when steel is heated and cooled, the effects of carbon content and cooling rate on the microstructures that form. Also, how to read the iron-carbon phase diagram will be discussed. All this information is applicable to understanding the effects of steel heat treating processes and heat treating process parameters on the microstructure and properties of heat treated plain carbon, low-alloy, and tools steels. The course is divided into six modules followed by a quiz.
Training / Education

Metallurgy of Steel Case Hardening

Anytime
This online course discusses common steel case hardening processes and how they are used to modify the surface layers of steels to obtain specific mechanical properties. Participants will learn about the process parameters and how they affect case composition, depth, microstructure, and properties. The course takes one hour to complete.
Training / Education

Metallurgy of Steel Through Hardening

Anytime
This online course teaches about the metallurgy of the following steel through hardening processes: quench and temper, martempering, and austempering. Participants will learn about the effects of heat treating temperature and cooling rate on steel microstructure and properties, and the effects of the interaction between heat treating process parameters and steel composition on through hardened steel microstructure and strength. This course takes one hour to complete.
Training / Education

Metallurgy of Precipitation Strengthening

Anytime
This online course teaches about the microscopic changes that take place in a precipitation strengthened alloy and their effects on the properties of the alloy. The effects of the different heat treating steps (solution treatment, quench, and aging) and heat treating process parameters (solution treatment temperature and time, quench rate, and aging temperature and time) on the alloy microstructure and the effects on alloy strength are discussed. The course is divided into five modules followed by a quiz.
Technical Paper

Correlating Test-Data on Heat-Treated Chromium-Vanadium Steels

1928-01-01
280023
AN outline is given of the work performed and the method of procedure followed in correlating test results on specimens of heat-treated S.A.E. chromium-vanadium steel 6130 as a basis for revision of the physical-property charts for certain automotive steels. Revision of the charts was proposed by the Iron and Steel Division of the Standards Committee of the Society, and a subcommittee, of which the author is a member, was appointed to carry on the preliminary work of revision. The paper is a report of the results of the tests made. Test specimens of S.A.E. Steel 6130, to be drawn at three different temperatures after quenching, were prepared by four steel manufacturers. These were distributed among 30 cooperating laboratories, which made a series of about 115 tests including complete chemical analysis, tensile-strength, and Brinell, scleroscope and Rockwell hardness tests on the specimens.
Technical Paper

SOME PRINCIPLES OF LOW-COST TOOLING

1933-01-01
330013
After predicting that the demand for changes in automotive products and the substitution of new devices will increase in the next few years and stating major factors with which managements are concerned at present, the author mentions that, after direct-labor costs, the next largest items of expense in a machine shop are generally depreciation and obsolescence of machines, fixtures and tools, especially when a plant is tooled for high production. He believes that the machine-tool industry might aid by reducing its prices and that this can be done, but that in such case the industry must eliminate its present cast-iron type of designing and many of its present manufacturing methods. General machine-shop practice is analyzed and the illustrations show three classes of fixtures: (a) holding, (b) self-contained tools with holding means and (c) complete mechanisms.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE - FOUNDRY CLASSIFICATION

1933-01-01
330037
Mr. Jennings describes a test now being considered for determining the point of optimum superheat for lifting iron from a static to a dynamic condition, with tensile strength of alloyed cast iron of 80,000 lb. per sq. in. and of heat-treated iron of 100,000 lb. per sq. in. When this field is entered, increased temperature becomes necessary for consistent results, and a series of tests is being run to discover approximately the temperature at which breakdown of the carbon nucleus occurs. The electric furnace, Mr. Jennings asserts, offers a non-oxidizing and non-contaminating method of melting iron at any desired temperature and allows iron to become high-brow and choosy.
Technical Paper

ON ELECTRIC-FURNACE CAST-IRON - As an Aid to Designer and Foundryman - THE DESIGNER'S VIEWPOINT

1933-01-01
330035
Mr. Woolson points out that designers are continually trying to make 1 lb. do the work of 2 lb. but are prone to underestimate the important possibilities of alloyed cast iron in automotive engineering. Recent improvements in methods of handling molten metal for casting lends these methods to the obtaining of uniformity of castings and physical properties. Some readily obtainable properties of electric-furnace iron are strength approximately double that of ordinary cast iron, increased wear resistance, reduced growth characteristics, heat resistance and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

APPLICATION TO MOTOR-VEHICLES

1933-01-01
330036
Mr. Hageboeck deals with the application of cast iron made by the electric-furnace process to automobiles, motor-trucks and motorcoaches and states that, as supplementary to the cupola method, the electric-furnace process, with its greater flexibility, higher temperature and close control, opens up to the gray-iron foundryman a field that would not otherwise be possible. Almost any composition desired can be made by the process and, as small quantities can be produced economically, the designing engineer can obtain almost any kind of a mixture and pour it in regular-production molds for sample purposes to try out new ideas.
Technical Paper

Brake-Drum Metallurgy

1932-01-01
320006
EITHER steel or cast iron will provide a good braking surface provided the grain structure is laminated pearlite, according to the author. Such a structure can be secured in pressed steel by alloying or by case-hardening, in high-carbon steel rings welded to a stamped back and in centrifugally cast iron by careful control without alloying. Uniformity of analysis is important and control of the rate of cooling is still more important in castings. The graphite content of iron is not considered important as a lubricant. Methods of centrifugal casting and of testing are illustrated; also the form and microstructure of representative brake-drums. Discussers agree as to the microstructure needed and present additional views as to ways of securing that structure and the desirability of capacity for absorbing and dissipating heat. They believe grain size and strength more important than hardness.
Technical Paper

The Properties and Selection of Automotive Steels

1932-01-01
320057
METALLURGISTS must supply engineers with data on the physical properties of steels so that the skill of both can be used, particularly for machinery in which light weight is essential. The engineer who has not a metallurgical department at his command cannot be sure of duplicating results claimed by steel makers, and the physical-property data that have been given in the S.A.E. HANDBOOK are based on minimum results, for safety. More complete information as to what actually can be expected is desirable, and a subcommittee has had a large number of tests made on identical samples from several heats of two alloy steels. The results for these two steels have been coordinated in probability curves that were developed with the aid of frequency charts. Some steels are not uniform in their physical properties in large sections. The author presents suggestions for steels that are suitable for large sections, with the strengths that can be expected from them.
Technical Paper

Machining by Pressure

1932-01-01
320031
STANDARDS of accuracy in forging are subject to constant revision. Accuracy depends on the equipment used, and the limit of forging accuracy was thought to have been reached because of the structural limitations in machines of existing types. However, the development of a new type of pressure machine has again caused a revision of our ideas of the accuracy attainable. Finish forging on this machine can be done on the heat remaining from forging or annealing, at a temperature below that at which scale is formed. Cold coining is also done with this machine with a high degree of accuracy and uniformity. What may be referred to as pressure machining of forgings eliminates roughing cuts, reduces the number of handlings and, in some cases, entirely eliminates further machining. Other economies resulting from uniformity are the facility with which work fits into chucks, jigs and hoppers and the uniformity in weight of parts such as connecting-rods.
Technical Paper

Casting Cylinders in Green Sand

1930-01-01
300039
CYLINDER-BLOCKS, with their hollow form and complicated arrangement of water-jackets, valve passages, pockets and bearings, are difficult to cast, and require a large quantity of cores. These have generally been baked or dry-sand cores, but the author's organization has met with success in making the more bulky cores, those for the cylinder-barrels and crankcase, in green sand. Descriptions and copious photographs and drawings are given of two methods of molding one six-cylinder block in green sand, and the possibilities of the system are indicated by illustrations of cylinders and details of cylinders that have been molded or that are suitable for molding in green sand. Cooperation between designer and foundryman is essential in realizing the economy possible with this method of molding, a large part of which results from the great saving in cost of sand.
Technical Paper

Prevention of Valve-Seat Erosion

1931-01-01
310008
MORE THAN SEVEN YEARS of investigation of the problem of preventing valve-seat erosion under severe operating conditions in motor-truck and motorcoach engines are reviewed briefly. Engineers are said now to be generally agreed that an insert of some non-ferrous material is the only means of obtaining a valve seat that will stand severe service. A theory for the cause of a thin spotty deposit or pick-up on the valve seat that accelerates erosion is advanced, and this deposit is said to be absent on valve seats made of non-ferrous metals. Aluminum bronze gives satisfactory results but is difficult to secure to cast-iron cylinder-blocks because of its greater coefficient of expansion. Several partially successful methods of securing aluminum-bronze rings to cast iron are shown. A method that is applicable to one alloy which has reduced erosion under the most severe operating condition to such an extent that it is almost negligible is described.
Technical Paper

SPUR-GEAR GRINDING AND TESTING 1

1923-01-01
230050
A grinding-machine for finishing spur-gears is illustrated and described; claims are made that it will grind transmission gears on a production basis after they have been heat-treated and will produce correct tooth-contour, smooth finish and accurate tooth-spacing, these features being necessary in producing gears that are interchangeable and that run quietly. This machine is of the generating type, its action being that of rolling a gear along an imaginary rack and using the grinding wheel as one tooth of the rack. The dished grinding-wheel is reversible, 30 in. in diameter, mounted below the gear, and can be swiveled to the right or left of the center position up to an angle of 25 deg. The work-spindle carries the indexing and the generating mechanisms at the rear, where they are accessible and yet are protected.
Technical Paper

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT IN A SMALL PRODUCTION PLANT1

1923-01-01
230052
To install conveyors in a going automobile manufacturing plant of moderate size, without interrupting production, and with a minimum amount of rearrangement of the plant and an investment commensurate with the saving to be effected, was the problem, the solution of which is herein described. The conditions that determined whether power-driven or gravity-actuated conveyors should be used are discussed and the various types required for handling raw stock, for machining operations, for sub-assemblies and for finished assemblies are indicated.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE FINISHING-VARNISH

1923-01-01
230016
Annual Meeting and Detroit Section Paper - As the success or failure of the finish of an automobile depends largely on the finishing-varnish, a plea is made for more scientific analyses of the problems of automobile finishing and more care in selecting and applying a suitable varnish. The qualities to be desired in a finishing-varnish are divided into two classes: the shop qualities and the service qualities. The shop qualities include color, body or viscosity, working, flowing, setting, hardening, fullness and the safety of working. The service qualities, or those that enable the varnish to withstand the various conditions of use, include resistance to break-down under the chemical action of the actinic rays of sunlight, to the destructive action of moisture and the alkalis in mud and soap, to expansion and contraction, to vibration and to abrasion.
Technical Paper

IMPROVED NICKEL-PLATING METHODS

1924-01-01
240053
A practical method of nickel-plating is outlined and the various processes are described by which the Packard Motor Car Co. has been successful in producing a durable coating of nickel on automobile parts in general, and the radiator shells, the rim plates and the tire-carrier plates, in particular. These are the parts of greatest exposure, and for plating them a new system of moving-cathode tanks was installed. The three problems to which special attention was devoted were rusting, pitting and peeling. No effort was made to secure a coating of any designated depth but reliance was placed solely on the results indicated by a 24-hr. salt-spray test, which was considered to be the equivalent of 2 years' exposure to the usual weather conditions. Peeling was overcome by thoroughly cleaning the parts before plating. New equipment was purchased and laid out in accordance with the system decided upon, namely, copper-plating, buffing and nickel-plating.
X