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Technical Paper

New Development of Thermomechanical Processing (TMP) and High Volume Production Aluminium Wheel Suspension Arms

2001-10-01
2001-01-3417
The performance of automotive components is strongly controlled by the costs in the process chain from melt to final shaped product. In comparison with other aluminium alloys the AA 6082 base alloy have a lot of advantages, highly formable, corrosion resistant and with high strength in combination with good ductility. The main objective of the research is to reduce steps from forging stock to final shaped product including heat treatment. The reduction of heat treatment time and the in line processing of heat treatment and mechanical processing like forming is the main step forward. The basic understanding of the material behaviour during processing like time, temperature and deformation are the main background for the development of new forging lines. The principle of microstructural control is kept as one key issue since the microstructure and the final properties of the product are closely linked.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of the Impact Behaviour of Injection Moulded Components Through Processing: A Case Study

2001-10-01
2001-01-3426
This work validates a methodology to optimise the impact properties of injection moulded semicrystalline polymers through the control of the processing conditions. This is applied to a case study: an interior door panel. The thermomechanical environment imposed during moulding is assessed by computer simulations of the mould filling phase, for a wide range of processing conditions. Two thermomechanical indices are then calculated aiming at interpreting the microstructure development. Based on relationships between these thermomechanical indices and the impact properties of plate-like mouldings, the impact behaviour of the door panel can be enhanced. The results are experimentally validated
Technical Paper

Core Room of the Future: Utilizing Technical Innovations in the Area of Information Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-1036
A true challenge for today's foundries is the continuously increasing demand for cost effective, but high quality castings. This demand can only be satisfied through the increased use of automation and efficient quality assurance, based on modern information management solutions. In this context, the article introduces a new core- making facility concept that is based on the following tools and products: A computer aided simulation tool to optimize logistical processes. A fully automatic vision inspection system for the detection of core damages and processing of visual data of sand cores. A modular, computer aided process control system for the recognition, analysis and visualization of all relevant production data in the core room.
Technical Paper

Testing for Thermal Distortion in Chemically-Bonded Foundry Sands

2001-03-05
2001-01-1038
The automotive/metalcasting industry has realized the need for near-net shape casting. Powertrain components are designed to assuage in close tolerance. A goal of the foundry engineer is to produce cores and molds of consistent dimensional accuracy, and hence a casting satisfying the ever tighter tolerances of the automotive industry. The developers and users of chemical binders, in hot or cold box cores or on patterns for mold, all have this issue in mind. A thermal distortion tester, developed at Western Michigan University for examining the thermomechanical properties of chemically-bonded sands, is described. It is simple to operate and the test piece is a “disc transverse strength specimen” used with chemically-bonded sands. The tester can be used for process control to establish a materials control program and for dimensional control of cores and molds.
Technical Paper

Adaptive, real-time traffic control management

2000-06-12
2000-05-0374
This paper presents an architecture for distributed control systems and its underlying methodological framework. Ideas and concepts of distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and soft computing are merged into a unique architecture to provide cooperation, flexibility, and adaptability required by knowledge processing in intelligent control systems. The distinguished features of the architecture include a local problem solving capability to handle the specific requirements of each part of the system, an evolutionary case-based mechanism to improve performance and optimize controls, the use of linguistic variables as means for information aggregation, and fuzzy set theory to provide local control. A distributed traffic control system application is discussed to provide the details of the architecture, and to emphasize its usefulness. The performance of the distributed control system is compared with conventional control approaches under a variety of traffic situations.
Technical Paper

Machinabilty of Advanced Ceramic for CADCAM Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0766
In almost all-manufacturing processes, there is a trade-off between cost and quality. Parameters that indicate quality include surface texture, dimensional accuracy, mechanical properties and uniformity of physical appearance. Unfortunately, parts with good surface finish, precise geometry and high mechanical strength are usually the most expensive to produce. In order to achieve high quality components at reasonable cost, optimisation of machining is essential. This is usually accomplished by judicious selection of proper cutting tool, cutting method, and the various cutting parameters that control the process. It is the intention of this paper to demonstrate research efforts aimed at characterizing and machining of CAPTAL‘90’, a hydroxyapatite (HA) material-suitable for human bone tissue replacement. It is expected that experimental knowledge gained and the results will form basis for modification of hydroxyapatite material for better machining performance.
Technical Paper

WIzARD: Weld Inspection And Reporting Database Software development, implementation, and application

2000-10-03
2000-01-2677
A relational database created for biw resistance spotweld program. Graphics and data are combined to provide clear and accurate information to cross functional welding teams (inspection, production, maintenance, engineering). System is networked across the biw to enable timely communication of issues. Online input and updating allows tracking of process parameters and assists in continuous improvement. “from-the-floor” documentation creates useful short/long term statistical process control and “hot-spot” identification. Dramatic improvments in team response time, coordination, and lower operating costs through continuous improvement and reduced reprocessing.
Technical Paper

Open Interfaces for Bridging the Steps in the Chain of a Totally Simulation-based Software Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0712
This paper proposes a new approach towards achieving a totally simulation-based software development process for electronic control units (ECU) in automotive applications. It introduces a tool-based methodology to support the system software designer right from inception through the chain by bridging the main steps of software development, i.e. “Simulation/Automatic Code Generation”, “Compilation” and “Measurement & Calibration”. The coherent linkage of these steps to each other by means of flexible open interfaces (conform with ASAM-MCD [1] and OSEK [2]) is addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Exhaust Gas Modeling of a Common Rail Diesel Engine - an Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1243
Engine models are a basis for better controlling combustion process and the exhaust emissions resulting from it. Currently the zero- and quasi-dimensional models are mostly used. These types of models are also addressed in this article. Zero-dimensional models are computationally efficient and show good simulation results concerning the in-cylinder pressure. However, by neglecting multi-zonal resolution they are not able to describe fuel efficiency or the generation of pollutants. It is therefore necessary to enhance combustion process models with phenomenological fuel spray and vaporization models, with a local resolution of at least two zones. The chemical model for the calculating of emissions shall be based on a two-zone model. The amount of mass, which is transferred from the unburned to the burned zone, is entered into a chemical model based on the chemical equilibrium for the OCH-system (oxygen/carbon/hydrogen).
Technical Paper

Quality Assurance Procedures for Powder Forged Materials

1983-02-01
830364
The fatigue performance of powder forged parts can be better than that of similar components which have been cast or drop-forged. To achieve such properties, close control must be exercised over the powders from which the parts are fabricated and also over the process used to consolidate them. This paper discusses some of the property requirements for powders intended for forging applications. Consideration is given to both the physical and chemical characteristics of the powders. Emphasis is placed on powder cleanliness and an automated image analysis technique for non-metallic inclusion assessment is described. Process control requirements during preform compaction and powder forging are also covered and a magnetic bridge sorting technique for assessing the microstructural integrity of the forgings is also outlined.
Technical Paper

Microprocessor Clutch Control

1983-02-01
830628
The authomatic control of a normal production mechanical clutch has the objective of increasing driver confort in urban traffic. Such a device will require a well suited control strategy and a very carefull experimental analysis to ensure correct and reliable operation during the start of the vehicle and gears shifting operation. To approach this problem, Fiat Research Center has developed on Fiat Panda 30 a microcomputer based control system that drives an appropriate clutch pneumatic actuator. This paper illustrates, in some details, the pneumatic-mechanical actuation system, the sensors used, the control strategy and the electronic controller structure.
Technical Paper

Sensors in Action for Quality Assurance

1983-02-01
830169
This paper describes the use of sensors in a Quality Assurance System which encompasses the major departments within a Production Facility. Machining, Assembly, Test, and Storage are included. The purpose of the sensors is to create signals which can be converted into useful information for use by the appropriate manager, such as Quality Control, Floor Supervision, and Production Control. The information provides data regarding problems at regular intervals enabling management to maintain control of the system.
Technical Paper

Practical Applications of Statistical Quality Control in SMC Molding Plant

1983-02-01
830141
Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques have been available to Process Engineers for decades but only recently have they been more widely practiced by U.S. firms. Increased competition from foreign firms and increased concern for quality control within the automotive industry have dictated that all parties throughout the manufacturing chain be more aggressive in resolving processing problems. As suppliers within that chain, manufacturers of compression molding SMC (sheet molding compound) can significantly improve their processing techniques by successfully implementing Statistical Process Control.
Technical Paper

Hot Rolled Sheet Product Consistency-Coilbox

1983-02-01
830278
The demand for higher strength, lighter gauge materials by automotive designers, requires superior quality high strength steels from the manufacturer. The modern hot strip mill for supplying these sheet and strip products has developed into a high capacity sophisticated metallurgical tool. Subtle changes in chemistry, temperature control or the rolling process can produce a variety of strengths, toughness or formability characteristics in the final product. The Coilbox is an innovation in hot strip mill equipment that was developed at Stelco for the purpose of overcoming a fundamental hot rolling problem of heat loss from the product during the rolling process. This paper explains the difference between conventional and Coilbox methods of rolling. The benefits of improved surface, gauge control, shape control and metallurgical uniformity are also discussed which can result in a lower cost product for the original equipment manufacturer and component producer.
Technical Paper

Contribution to the Simulation of Driver-Vehicle-Road System

1981-02-01
810513
In this study a mathematical model for Driver/Vehicle/Road system has been developed incorporating steer advance and a differential form of looking ahead concept. A four degrees of freedom mathematical model is used to simulate the vehicle. The model developed to simulate the road geometry is in a generalised form and can be used to represent any kind of manoeuvre. Drivers’ basic characteristics, information processing, decision making and control response aspects are discussed. An experiment was conducted to obtain information about the information process and control response made by drivers. Individual differences between subjects are examined and discussed. The performance of the mathematical model of Driver/Vehicle/Road system has been compared with that of the subjects and shown to produce comparable results. The model developed can effectively be used for studying the vehicle handling characteristics in closed-loop systems.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control System for a Modern Turboprop Engine

1981-04-01
810620
The basic objective was to create an integrated fuel control and propeller governor system fully compatible with engine characteristics so that optimum engine performance would be attained during all ground and flight operation within the engine operating envelope. This system requires less aircraft linkage, a reduction in the number of engine control components, a reduction in the hydromechanical unit complexity, and ease of controls settings adjustment, compared to the current production control systems. The control system employs electronic, hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical components, which result in enhanced performance and reliability characteristics.
Technical Paper

Statistical Control of Suspension Bushing Assembly

1983-02-01
830300
This paper provides information on the sequence of events leading to the introduction of statistical process control of suspension bushing manufacturing. Included are the thoughts and reasoning processes involved in the introduction of the charting methods in a manner conducive to acceptance by manufacturing personnel. Although this paper relates to the problems and solutions encountered with one bushing, the techniques have been used successfully in many areas of manufacturing of bushings within the plant.
Technical Paper

Gagesite - Computerized Vision for Automotive Instrument Calibration

1983-02-01
830327
A computer video imaging program called “Gagesite” has been developed which can automate the calibration process of automotive instruments in a fast and flexible manner. This paper looks inside “Gagesite” and how it is linked with machine controls and a statistical process control program to increase productivity and quality.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Control of Wheel Alignment

1984-02-01
840102
A computer assisted system for the control of vehicle alignment has been developed which has greatly increased the outgoing quality of vehicle alignment at assembly facilities. Employing the use of a computer with communication links to automated alignment setting fixtures provides a means for effectively maintaining process control of vehicle alignment. This is accomplished by inputting alignment audit data into a computer to be organized and analyzed for the purpose of determining “mean deviations” and then automatically generating set point changes at appropriate stations via programmable controllers and data highway communications.
Technical Paper

Controlled Manufacturing and Testing

1984-02-01
840104
Control of a production process based on analysis of statistical results is a widely accepted philosophy. However, the role of testing in process control is not fully described. This paper presents a theory of “controlled manufacturing and testing,” where the dual role of a testing station is defined. This is based on two feedback loops: the sorting loop and the process control loop. The concept is extended to a multiple-loop structure comprising the complex operation of a production line. This leads to consideration of optimization of the objective cost function of the control structure. The term of 0% inspection is only applicable to the sorting and not to the process control function of the dual control loops. The novel task is to organize the constant link between the flow of information and its engineering interpretation and corrective action. For this purpose more intelligent process control stations equipped with diagnostic facilities are envisaged.
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