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Book

Factory Man

2009-02-16
Factory Man is about James Harbour and the epic struggle of the U.S. auto industry to catch up to Japan in quality and productivity. Harbour is a former manufacturing executive who, partly by chance, became the first U.S. expert to study Toyota's operations in Japan. Harbour's consulting firm, Harbour & Associates has gained worldwide recognition for its annual public studies of factory productivity. The Harbour Report is the essential annual scorecard of who is winning the productivity race in the U.S. In 1981, Harbour reported that Toyota could offer a small car for sale in the U.S. at a production cost of $1,500-$1,700 less than the Detroit automakers at that time, a cost advantage of about 30 percent. The impact on Detroit was atomic, and launched the painful, historic effort by the Big Three to catch up, which continues today. James Harbour's story, blunt and accessible, includes a detailed description of how Detroit went astray, beginning right after World War II.
Book

Biofuels: Illusion or Reality?

2008-09-01
Environmental issues, rising prices and security of supply are putting energy at the center of all attention. Policymakers pushed by various stakeholders are struggling to find more sustainable solutions to the world’s legitimate demand for energy. The transport sector is especially under pressure as it relies up to 98% on oil. Despite vast research and development investments, no short-term solutions appeared to be reliable. Thanks to lawmakers’ support to biofuels, these substitutes for oil are now seen as the potential solution for a sustainable future in less polluting transportation alternatives. This book analyses the real possibility of biofuels in Europe. Does the region have enough land to produce the needed feedstock? What are the real gains in terms of greenhouse gases emissions and energy efficiency? Are biofuels really a sustainable solution? Will this policy succeed? Are the targets reachable?
Software

SAE Emissions Technology Collection

1998-02-04
Thank you for your interest in the SAE Emissions Technology Collection. This demo gives you an overview of the functionality of the product, illustrating the search interaction and the navigational features. You'll want to try a few searches so you can become familiar with the look and feel of the product and the navigational tools it offers. Please note: this demo does NOT provide you with the content of the product. It contains only one document to show you how you can link from the document summary to the full-text PDF. For information on the content of the product, please see the SAE website. You will be asked to login to the SAE Website before accessing the demo. This will require you to register as a new user if you do not already have an SAE Website account. Click on the following link to access the demo: If you have any questions, please e-mail CustomerService@sae.org or call 1-724-776-4970.
Collection

Advances in Catalyst Substrates, 2018

2018-04-03
Papers included in this collection cover the systems engineering experience required to achieve ultra-low emission levels on gasoline light-duty vehicles. Emission system component topics include the development of advanced three-way catalysts, the development of NOX control strategies for gasoline lean burn engines, the application of high cell density substrates to advanced emission systems, and the integration of these components into full vehicle emission systems.
Collection

Advances in NOx Reduction Technology, 2015

2015-04-14
This technical paper collection will focus on ‘Advances in NOx Reduction Technology’. The topics covered will include: new materials for lean NOx traps (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR); system integration and durability; advances in NOx catalyst substrates, novel reductants and mixing designs.
Collection

Emission Measurement and Testing, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection covers emissions measuring techniques and testing regimes including new analysis techniques and the novel application of existing techniques, the comparison of existing and proposed testing regimes with real world experience, including modeling.
Technical Paper

Surface Treatments and Characterization of Electroplated and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

1996-04-01
91A126
Protection of surfaces is a critical factor in determining the extended service life of a structure in polluted and aggressive environments. In particular, a rapid growth of the technology for the protecting coating of cold rolled steel is experienced, for the use in transport, electric housewares, building and industrial plants. Numerous changes have taken place in the production of zinc coatings on steel in order to improve the corrosion resistance using zinc alloy platings. Our research group collected from the international production a number of selected galvanized steel samples, including electrodeposited zinc alloys, multilayer coatings, hot dip galvanized steels. On the selected materials we established and analyzed morphology, composition, crystal structure, impurity content and distribution, using many surface microanalysis techniques.
Technical Paper

New Materials and Experiences for the Industrialization of Pu Structural Rim Technology

1996-04-01
91A122
Processes involving use of reactive polymers received recently considerable attention also for producing components suitable for automotive structural applications. In particular polyurethane structural RIM technology seems to be the route of choice in terms of productivity, reliability and physico- mechanical performances in order to fit the automotive industry needs in the production of parts requiring superior load bearing properties. In this frame the development of long pot life snap-cure resins, fast and effective reinforcement preforming techniques as well as the development of computerized provisional processing methodologies are of paramount importance in view of industrialization of the technology. In this paper a description of the work carried out by Enichem Montedipe and Montedison is given. In particular a new family of PU systems, based on special isocyanate variants, is reported.
Technical Paper

The Modeling of Mold Filling in Structural Reaction Injection Molding

1996-04-01
91A118
The main use of FRC in automobiles, with the exception of a few specialized low volume vehicles, has been until now in semistructural parts. One of the most promising process in development today, that may play major role in future structural composite fabrication, is based on SRIM technology. The rapid and extensive introduction of this process goes also through the development of deeper theoretical knowledge of the process and the development of computer simulation to aid mold design and choice of proper processing parameters. To contribute SRIM advancement, a preliminary model has been developed for viscosity changes, extent of the reaction and temperature rises, associated with the mold filling stage, as well as a simple software to evaluate the pressure drop through different combinations of reinforcements.
Technical Paper

Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites Obtained By Indirect Squeeze-Casting

1996-04-01
91A115
Indirect squeeze casting technology is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques of near net shape components constituted by aluminum matrix composite (AMC) materials. AMCs reinforced with both continuous and discontinuous ceramic elements have been mainly produced by infiltration of porous preforms. Nevertheless, a further promising production route offered by this technique is given by the possibility to employ ingots of pre-reinforced aluminum alloys containing ceramic particles (silicon carbide or alumina); ingots are remelted and, under suitable operative conditions, high quality composite castings of simple and complex shape are produced by squeeze casting. The present paper describes the results of an extensive experimental work carried out by Alures-Centro Tecnico Porcessi on a pilot plant scale employing a vertical squeeze casting machine with a clamping force of 315 tons.
Technical Paper

Glass Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites: Effects of Ribs and Different Types of Reinforcement on the Characteristics of the Molded Part

1996-04-01
91A119
Compression molding of thermoplastic sheets, consolidated or non- consolidated, reinforced with glass fibers (GMT, GRT) is applied as an economic production process in the automotive industry. The aim of this work is to evaluate how the physical and mechanical strength characteristics depend on the presence or absence of ribs and how component performance may be changed by modifying the molding parameters, altering the content and orientation of the reinforcement fibers in the ribbed areas. For this purpose, two statistical designs will be considered, the first carried out on a box type component without ribs, the second on the same component with a set of internal ribs. Two different materials with a PP matrix will be tested, a GMT reinforced with continuous random glass fibers and a 12 mm random glass fibers composite.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical Behavior and Wear Resistance of Whisker Or Particle Reinforced Ceramics

1996-04-01
91A107
Ceramic composite materials have been intensively studied during the last years. Particles and whisker reinforcement have shown the simultaneous advantage to allow the preparation of composite materials by conventional processing and to lead, when under optimum conditions, to dramatic toughening and strengthening. Since wear resistance of brittle material have been shown to be related to both hardness and toughness, composite materials with improved were resistance have been developed for cutting tools or bearing applications. However the mechanism responsible for toughening is of major important for wear resistance effectiveness. We have therefore reviewed the main mechanisms before presenting some examples of composites materials for wear resistance applications.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Aluminum Alloys and Mmc Obtained By Means of a Spray Depositon Approach

1996-04-01
91A112
The paper review some recent efforts, made by the aluminum industry, towards the development of new advanced alloys for aerospace applications; unconventional production technologies and MMC occupy an outstanding position in this context. Raid solidification processes are currently used for obtaining advanced alloys and, among them, the powder metallurgy route is one of the most commonly applied, since it has reached a considerable level of maturity. Experimental results of PM materials are shown and discussed in order to appreciate the potentialities of this class of materials and some recent further progress is shown: the spray deposition approach (osprey process). After having described the main features of the osprey process, some results obtained at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Pisa about the development of high strength Al-alloy and MMC obtained by means of the osprey process are shown.
Technical Paper

Casting and Characterization of An Aluminum Alloy Car Engine Bracket Produced By Squeeze Casting Technology

1996-04-01
91A114
The following paper describes the experimental activity regarding the setting-up and characterization of a car engine bracket in Al-Si12Cu2FeZn-F alloy produced by the new technology squeeze casting. LExperimentation was carried out at the Alures squeeze casting pilot plant. Static and dynamic characterization (fatigue resistance on test samples and the component itself) was carried out at Teksid and Fiat Auto. Characterization test have demonstrated the considerable advantages offered by the new technology compared with conventional production processes.
Technical Paper

Devleopment and Industrial Realization of Glass Mat Preforming Equipment for Rtm and Shim

1996-04-01
91A101
As a result of the rapid expansion of liquid molding in closed mold, fiberglass mat performers have rapidly changed in order to meet the high production requirements. The reasons for this interest in RTM and SRIM can be found in the considerable benefits offered by this technology which include: 1) ability to produce very large parts (weights up to 70 kg are currently being prototyped); 2) continuous and homogeneous reinforcement or even predetermined distribution of the reinforcement in the mold; 3) the ability to produce structures using cores of various types; and 4) the ability to use large inserts, even if they are metallic. The creation and development of this technology has been possible thanks to the introduction of very low viscosity reactive polymers. These materials permits very fast impregnation of the reinforcement in the closed model, thereby decreasing the cure time and the overall cycle time.
Technical Paper

Advances in Thermoset Injection Molding

1996-04-01
91A102
Injection molding of thermosetting materials such as low profile SMC/BMC composites found increasing application in the transportation industry in the eighties. Such automotive parts as front end panels and rear/hatchback doors have grown in usage. The rear doors have reached exceptional production levels of 2600/day in a single plant. The injection process offers the advantages of greater automation for the mass production of body panel parts compared in compression molding. However, the injection molding of fiber reinforced low profile composites suffers from a severe reduction in physical properties. This is particularly true for impact strength which can be one-third that of similar compression molding materials. A primary reason for this is due to the degradation of the reinforcement during the processing/molding. Efforts at increasing the physical properties through processing changes have many times caused problems with the surface smoothness of the moldings.
Technical Paper

Reliability Improvement of Automotive Components By Surface Modification

1996-04-01
91A104
In this paper, several detailed studies on the surface properties of coatings are explained in order to make function of surface modification become more effective. As surface coatings, eletroless nickel plating, organic thin film, nitriding and antireflection coating by ultra fine particles are examined. Discussion of optimum production conditions and surface conditions for each coating is introduced.
Technical Paper

Structual Problems in the Design of a Car-Component in a Composite Material

1996-04-01
91A096
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental and numerical study performed on the rear door of a car of large production. It was carried out with a DMC ("dough molding compound") plastic material with short glass fibers. This technology makes strong the link between the production process and the mechanical properties of the component. Such properties really vary according to the fibers orientation, the distance from the injection points and the geometrical complexity of the different regions of the molded component. In some regions the fibers orientation is well defined, in others the orientation can be expressed only in average tendency terms, with a large scatter band. It is natural to think that the material modifies its behavior from region to region, showing marked orthotropic properties or, on the contrary, a compensation isotropic trend.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
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