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Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.

Impact of Auxiliary Loads on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Transit Bus Applications

In this paper we present the results of full-scale chassis dynamometer testing of two hybrid transit bus configurations, parallel and series and, in addition, quantify the impact of air conditioning. We also study the impact of using an electrically controlled cooling fan. The main trend that is noted, and perhaps expected, is that a significant fuel penalty is encountered during operation with air conditioning, ranging from 17-27% for the four buses considered. The testing shows that the series hybrid architecture is more efficient than the parallel hybrid in improving fuel economy during urban, low speed stop and go transit bus applications. In addition, smart cooling systems, such as the electrically controlled cooling fan can show a fuel economy benefit especially during high AC (or other increased engine load) conditions.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Production of Gasoline and Lubricants by Hydrogenation

AFTER briefly describing the hydrogenation process and its three characteristic reactions, purification, stabilization and homogenizing, that remain unaltered in direction although they all change in extent, the authors discuss the possibilities of applying the process to the production of motor-fuel and lubricating oil. The possibilities offered by the process of reforming the molecular structure of petroleum hydrocarbons along directed lines to obtain products of the so-called paraffinic or naphthenic type are stressed. This presentation is supplemented by data on the actual properties and performance characteristics of hydrogenated gasolines and lubricating oils as tested by the fuel and lubrication laboratories of the Standard Oil Development Co. Two series of tests were run, one on a White motor-truck engine and the other on a Mack motor-truck engine, the latter being under abnormally severe conditions.
Technical Paper


Since the authors presented a paper on this subject that included the test results of only three fuels, the number of fuels investigated has been increased to 14 and several improvements have been made in the method relating to the manner of the preparation of the equilibrium solution and in the apparatus used for the measurement of vapor-pressures. In addition to describing these improvements, the present paper includes data on the fuels; a series of empirical curves from which it is possible to determine, aided by the data from the distillation curve, the dew-points of non-aromatic hydrocarbon fuel; a table showing a comparison of the more important properties of the fuels; and definite evidence that the 85-per cent point is the best single measure of the effective volatility of a motor-fuel, from a standpoint of distribution and crankcase-oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Present Status of Equilibrium-Volatility Work at Bureau of Standards

THIS paper is a concluding report on that phase of the equilibrium-volatility work at the Bureau of Standards which is applicable to engine performance as affected by vaporization in the manifold. New data on bubble-points are presented and an improved method is outlined for obtaining temperatures on specific air-vapor mixtures from the experimental observations. By taking into consideration the slope of the A.S.T.M. distillation curve, the 16-1 temperature at any percentage evaporated from 0 to 100 per cent can be computed from the A.S.T.M. temperature with an average deviation of 1 deg. cent. (2 deg. fahr.) by means of simple relations which are applicable to pure hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures, of any degree of complexity, within the gasoline range. Values for other mixtures can be readily obtained from the 16-1 temperatures.
Technical Paper

Production of Gasoline Substitutes from Coal

NO danger exists of the imminent exhaustion of the petroleum reserves of the United States, as is shown by a committee report published early in 1926 by the American Petroleum Institute, from which figures are given in the following paper. It is reasonable to assume that a sufficient supply of oil will be available for all purposes beyond the time when the demand therefor will be reduced by more efficient use of petroleum products or by the production of substitutes for them. The possibility of a future shortage of petroleum fuel suitable for automotive engines, however, and of the production of substitutes to avoid such a contingency, is receiving considerable attention in America and Europe. The author presents a general review of the situation and the status of research in the manufacture of gasoline substitutes from coal, of which enormous quantities remain unmined in this Country.
Technical Paper

Methods of Measuring the Antiknock Value of Fuels

THIS paper was prepared as part of the Cooperative Fuel Research program and presents mainly a review of published data on methods of measuring the anti-detonating qualities of motor fuels. Although detonation as a factor in gaseous explosive reactions is not a new subject, the general recognition of anti-knock value as an important quality of automotive engine-fuels is comparatively recent. Reference is made to bibliographies covering earlier work in this field, and an outline is given of work now in progress at various laboratories and universities. Ricardo's two test-engines and his methods of rating fuels in terms of highest useful compression-ratio and toluene value are described, and the applicability of his results to other engines is discussed. The British Air Ministry Laboratory, using a Ricardo variable-compression engine, compares fuels on the basis of percentage of increase in highest useful compression-ratio.
Technical Paper

Detonation Specifications for Automotive Fuels

TENDENCY to detonate is probably the most important factor in determining the usefulness of fuels for internal-combustion engines. Although it is possible, by various means, to measure more or less accurately the relative knocking-characteristics of fuels, no way has heretofore been found of rating fuels that does not depend upon some arbitrary non-reproducible conditions and measurements. The general methods adopted have consisted in comparing one fuel with another, but no absolute standard has been available. Knocking is a function of several variables, the knocking characteristics of which have been found by keeping a certain number of them constant while certain others are varied, thus rating them in terms of load, the spark-advance necessary to produce knocking, the position of the throttle at which knocking begins, and the like.
Technical Paper

Detonation Characteristics of Petroleum Motor-Fuels

AN examination for detonating qualities of 18 petroleum gasolines was made by the authors, the methods used being those of direct engine-tests and of chemical analysis. A single-cylinder lighting-plant engine, suitably modified, and a direct-reading detonation-indicator were utilized and they are described. The method of Morrell and Egloff was followed in the chemical analysis. This consists in determining the proportions of paraffins, naphthenes, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and calculating the aromatic equivalence of the hydrocarbons so found by the use of data compiled by Ricardo on the relative knock-reducing tendency of unsaturated hydrocarbons, naphthenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. These data indicate an equivalence expressed by the ratio 5 to 4 to 1. Experiments were made in which a constant proportion of one hydrocarbon of each class was added to a gasoline, and the detonating tendency of the resulting mixture was determined by engine test.
Technical Paper


The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
Technical Paper


The author views in perspective some facts from a purely scientific standpoint, and then shows their application to problems of the automotive industry. After reviewing the present facilities for measurement and the ability to make measurements of distances both infinitely small and large, as an aid toward a proper conception of the ultimate structure of matter, he applies this scientific knowledge in the direction of a solution of the fuel problem, which is a fundamental one because it involves the limitation of a natural resource. From 1918 and 1919 statistics, the amount of gasoline produced was something like 20 to 25 per cent of the crude oil pumped; 8 to 10 per cent is kerosene and 50 per cent is gas and fuel oil and a residue carrying lubricating oil, paraffin and carbon. Kerosene demand and production are practically fixed quantities; gasoline demands are increasing.
Technical Paper


CETANE number, a measure of the ingition quality of a fuel, is of importance in the satisfactory operation of a diesel engine; however, there is considerable evidence that cetane number is not the only criterion of a good diesel fuel and that other characteristics indicative of its burning properties must be considered. The authors feel that basic research on diesel fuels is necessary to determine the influence of additives, hydrocarbon structure, and physical properties on ignition and combustion under a wide range of conditions. This work should be so fundamental, they believe, that the results would be applicable not only to diesel engines but also to gas turbines, jet propulsion engines, and rocket engines. ▪ The opinions or assertions in this paper are the private ones of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Navy Department or the Naval Service at large.
Technical Paper


DESCRIBED here are the detailed characteristics of two series of synthetic lubricants, one essentially insoluble and the other soluble in water at room temperature. These lubricants are synthesized from natural or other hydrocarbon gases as raw materials. Results of laboratory and field tests indicate that the lubricants can be successfully used in internal-combustion engines. In fact, the authors report that one of them has already been used extensively in aircraft engines by the Army Air Forces and the Air Transport Command.
Technical Paper


HIGHLIGHTS of engine data obtained on pure hydrocarbons - part of API Research Project 45 - are presented here. This summary, the author says, may indicate the degree to which specific, detailed, and extensive data are of use to those who have the responsibility of providing suitable fuels for engines. He suggests also that to the builder of engines the generalizations may be almost equally useful in indicating what kinds of fuels can at least technically exist, and what the fundamental limitations are. It may also be helpful, he reports, in indicating what kind of engines should be built to use the available fuels to best advantage.
Technical Paper

Influence Of Fuel Composition On Deposit Formation In High-Speed Diesel Engines

On the background of the wide speed and load variations to which high-speed Diesel engines are subjected, the author diagnoses the temperature conditions under which two different types of unburned fuel deposits may be formed. Solid carbon particles (“soot”) are predominantly the product of incomplete combustion at full throttle or high temperature operation while liquid polymerized fuel fractions are experienced in increasing amounts at the low combustion chamber temperatures synonymous with light loads and reduced speeds. Although some faulty engine conditions may be the cause of excessive soot formation, the author blames most deposits of this nature on the presence of high-boiling or even residual fractions and the poor burning quality of predominantly aromatic fuels. Large differences in the magnitude of low temperature fuel deposits were found by the author without much relation to the commonly used fuel inspection data.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Chamber Deposition and Knock

THIS paper discusses a number of factors involved in the problem of octane-number requirement increase due to combustion-chamber deposits. A laboratory single-cylinder engine test procedure, which evaluates the effects of various fuel and oil factors, is presented with data showing its correlation with passenger-car operation under light-duty, city-driving conditions. The influence of engine operating conditions during accumulation of deposits and the importance of engine conditions selected to evaluate the magnitude of the requirement increase are illustrated. It is indicated that organic materials formed from both fuel and oil are of major importance in deposit formation. Data are presented which show that tel added to pure hydrocarbons of different chemical types may have different effects. It is shown that the carbon/hydrogen ratio of leaded pure hydrocarbons influences the amount and composition of the deposit formed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricant Composition on Combustion-Chamber Deposits

MOLECULAR weight or volatility has been found to be the most important factor in determining the extent to which a lubricant contributes to combustion-chamber deposits and octane requirement. Bright stock appears to be particularly harmful. Crude source (or variation in predominating hydrocarbon type) seems to have little effect. These authors report further that commercially practical mineral-base oils have been developed that show a significant advantage over previously known conventional lubricants in their ability to prevent these deposits and octane requirement increase when used with a conventional leaded fuel. Moreover, they say that SAE 5W-20 motor oils can be made that give a 4-5-octane advantage over conventional motor oils in preventing detonation. They point out, further, that, although progress has been made, even better lubricants and fuels are needed, in this respect.