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Book

Lectures of the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium

2011-05-05
Proceedings from the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium now available through SAE International. One of the most prestigious conferences on engine development in the industry today, the International Vienna Motor Symposium, now in its 32nd year, gathers world renowned experts to discuss the current and future state of motor technology. According to Dr. Hans Peter Lenz, president of the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers, who opened this year’s conference, markets are now in a better position to understand how internal combustion engines and electrified powertrains can actually complement each other. Presenters offered their input and experience in the development of new technologies enabling higher levels of fuel efficiency and power, longer range and a cleaner way for the mobility industry to move forward. The proceedings, available in two volumes and a CD, contain all the technical papers given during the meeting, both in English and in German.
Book

Toyota Technical Review 2010

2010-08-01
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2010 technical developments, this book includes 19 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume takes a special look at the Prius, Toyota's popular hybrid, along with other technical innovations. Title highlights include: Prius Technology • Hybrid Technologies in the 3rd Generation Prius • Chassis Development for the 3rd Generation Prius • Design of the Prius as an Eco-Icon Other Technical Areas • Introduction of the World's First Rear Seat Occupant Restraint System for Rear-End Collisions • Development of Fuel Consumption Estimation Technology Using VHDL-AMS • Development of Electrode Structure for High Performance Fuel Cell Using CAE
Book

Toyota R&D Technical Review 2011

2011-08-01
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2011 technical developments, this book includes 18 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume has a special focus on next-generation electric storage, and 10 of the papers highlight developments in such things as batteries, fuel cells and next-generation energy. Title highlights include: Next Generation Electric Storage and Its Applications • Secondary Battery Development for Hybrid Vehicles at Toyota • Development Trends and Popularization Trends for Fuel Cell Vehicles • Renewable Energy and Its Effective Usage Other Technical Areas • Drivetrain Development for the Lexus LFA • Development of Scratch-Resistant Universal Clear Coat • Development of Environmentally Friendly Machining Process for Aluminum Parts
Book

Insight: Fuel Effiency: Fuel Economy Testing (DVD)

2015-04-15
"Spotlight on Design: Insight" features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode "Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing" (12:01), engineers at the EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVL’s technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Diesel Engines Converted to High Compression Spark Ignition (SI) Natural Gas Operation

1988-03-01
871149
There is a strong interest around the world in natural gas as an alternative fuel. This paper is concerned with the option of converting diesel engines to spark ignition operation. Although this may appear to be an outrageous thermodynamic action, it is preferable to using natural gas in a low compression gasoline engine conversion. An investigation is described in which engine maps were produced for a 5.6 litre direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG. The diesel operating characteristics have been compared with those of the spark ignition conversion at compression ratios of 18:1 (the original diesel value), 15:1 and 13:1. Detailed data are presented for the 15:1 compression ratio. These test results are supplemented by results for other diesel conversions. The use of these engines in bus fleet operations is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

1988-03-01
871159
A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1502
In this study it is tried to reduce NOx and particulate emissions simultaneously in a direct injection diesel engine based on the concept of two-stage combustion. At initial combustion stage, NOx emission is reduced with fuel rich combustion. At diffusion combustion stage, particulate emission is reduced with high turbulence combustion. The high squish combustion chamber with reduced throat diameter is used to realize two-stage combustion. This combustion chamber is designed to produce strong squish that causes high turbulence. When throat diameter of the high squish combustion chamber is reduced to some extent, simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions is achieved with less deterioration of fuel consumption at retarded injection timing. Further reduction of NOx emission is realized by reducing the cavity volume of the high squish combustion chamber. Analysis by endoscopic high speed photography and CFD calculation describes the experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Autoignition Behavior of Surrogate Diesel Fuel Mixtures and the Chemical Effects of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) Cetane Improver

1999-05-03
1999-01-1504
The oxidation of surrogate diesel fuels composed of mixtures of three pure hydrocarbons with and without their cetane numbers chemically enhanced using 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) is studied in a variable pressure flow reactor over a temperature range 500 - 900 K, at 12.5 atmospheres and a fixed reaction time of 1.8 sec. Changes in both low temperature, intermediate temperature, and hot ignition chemical kinetic behavior are noted with changes in the fuel cetane number. Differences appear in the product distribution and in heat release generated in the low and intermediate temperature regimes as cetane number is increased. A chemically enhanced cetane fuel shows nearly identical oxidation characteristics to those obtained using pure fuel blends to produce the enhanced cetane value. The decomposition chemistry of 2-EHN was also studied. Pyrolysis data of 10% 2-EHN in n-heptane and toluene are reported.
Technical Paper

A Six-Stroke DI Diesel Engine Under Dual Fuel Operation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1500
A six-stroke DI diesel engine proposed by the authors had second compression and combustion processes which were added on a conventional four-stroke diesel engine. This engine had the first and second power strokes before the exhaust stroke. Numerical predictions and experiments previously carried out had shown that this six-stroke diesel engine could reduce NO exhaust emission. Further, the ignition delay of the second combustion process could be shortened by a high temperature effect in the second compression stroke. This advantage of short ignition delay could be utilized for an ignition improvement of a fuel with low cetane number. In the engine system reported here, a conventional diesel fuel was supplied as the fuel of first combustion process, and in the second combustion process, methanol was supplied.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions from Natural Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1507
The objective of the work described here is to test the performance of closed-loop controlled, heavy-duty CNG engines in-use, on fuels of different methane content; and to compare their performance with similar diesel vehicles. Performance is measured in terms of pollutant emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. To achieve this objective, three buses powered by closed-loop controlled, dedicated natural gas engines were tested on the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer facility at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, PM, and THC or NMHC), as well as emissions of alde-hydes for some vehicles, are reported. Two fuels were employed: a high methane fuel (90%) and a low methane fuel (85%). It was found that the NOx, CO, and PM emissions for a given cycle and vehicle are essentially constant for different methane content fuels.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Interim Results from Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

1999-05-03
1999-01-1505
The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. Currently, the project has four sites: Raley's in Sacramento, CA (Kenworth, Cummins L10-300G, liquefied natural gas - LNG); Pima Gro Systems, Inc. in Fontana, CA (White/GMC, Caterpillar 3176B Dual-Fuel, compressed natural gas - CNG); Waste Management in Washington, PA (Mack, Mack E7G, LNG); and United Parcel Service in Hartford, CT (Freightliner Custom Chassis, Cummins B5.9G, CNG). This paper summarizes current data collection and evaluation results from this project.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels for Use in Compression-Ignition Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1508
“Gas-to-liquids” catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude-derived fuels. Methylal (CH3-O-CH2-O-CH3), also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins B5.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Ring-Pack Behavior

1999-05-03
1999-01-1521
The ring-pack behavior in a modern gasoline engine represent complicated phenomena. The process of ring pack design consists of two stages: understanding the physical behavior and design synthesis on the systematic manner. Computer models give an inside on the physical processes associated with the ring-pack behavior. Mathematical optimization techniques provide the tools for design synthesis on the systematic way based on an optimal criteria. The mathematical optimization technique was developed and applied to ring pack design synthesis. When applied to the existing engine ring-pack designs, the optimized results indicated the potential for significant reduction in blow-by through the ring-pack by optimizing ring pack geometry. The optimization results were compared with the original ring pack designs for two gasoline engines for a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
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