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Biodiesel Permeability in Polyethylene

This paper reports solubility, diffusivity and permeability data for soy and rapeseed methyl esters in polyethylene together with comparisons with methyl oleate and linoleate. These data were used to discuss the reliability of predictive models for diffusion and solubility of additive type molecules into semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers. Presenter Emmanuel Richaud

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Engine-Fuel Flames

DETAILS are given of the method of control of the engine so that quantitative and reproducible measurements of detonation and comparisons with spectra can be made. Typical data are tabulated and photographs are shown of the free-burning flames of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, gasoline in a blow-torch, and the like. The spectra of explosion and of detonation in the engine confirm earlier conclusions. By means of a synchronous shutter, the spectra of radiation during the four quarters of a stroke are obtained for straight-run gasoline under detonating and non-detonating conditions for the same fuel containing tetraethyl lead, aniline and iodine as knock suppressers and for cracked-gasoline blends. The outstanding result is that, during detonation, the first-quarter spectrum extends far into the ultra-violet, that of the second quarter, a somewhat less distance; the third and fourth quarters are characterized by very little radiation energy.
Technical Paper


The effectiveness and the advantages and disadvantages of various substances and compounds that are used or offered in the market for use in the radiators of automotive vehicles as anti-freeze materials are discussed. These include alcohols, glycerine, salts, oils, sugars, and glycols. Properties affecting the suitability of a material or compound, or solutions of them with water to afford protection against freezing at atmospheric temperatures that are likely to be encountered are their heat capacity, freezing-point, boiling-point, specific gravity, viscosity, volatility, solubility, tendency to decompose at the boiling-point, inflammability, corrosive action upon metals, tendency to attack rubber, general availability, and price. The freezing-points of solutions of different materials vary widely at the same concentrations, or proportions to water, and also with variation of their concentration.
Technical Paper


An investigation has been carried out under conditions comparable to normal engine operation to ascertain the effects of an additive such as nitromethane on the power output, fuel consumption, and efficiencies which result therefrom. It has been learned that nitromethane can increase power output by as much as 13 percent on an indicated or gross basis when added to methyl alcohol and by 7 percent when added to a benzene-isooctane mixture in concentrations of 20% by volume. By so doing, the indicated specific fuel consumption increases, but contrary to expectations, so does the indicated thermal efficiency. The results from the benzene-isooctane blend were comparable to those from the methanol in all respects except for the increase in power, which was not as great. The amount of nitromethane which can be added to a given fuel is a function of its tendency to bring about preignition in the engine.
Technical Paper

Relation of Exhaust Gas Composition to Air-Fuel Ratio

THE increasing use of the analyses of the exhaust gas from an operating engine to measure air-fuel ratio has made the exact relation between composition and mixture ratio of some importance. Complete analyses of the exhaust gas are slow and laborious, and a simple relation between air-fuel ratio and one or more constituents easily determined by chemical analysis, or by automatic measurement of some property of the exhaust gas, is to be preferred, provided a suitable relation or calibration is available. The data in the literature are not altogether consistent. In the work reported in this paper, complete exhaust gas analyses for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and oxygen have been related to directly measured air-fuel ratios for three engines over a range of operating conditions and with varied air-measuring equipment.
Technical Paper

The Spontaneous Ignition of Isooctane Air Mixtures under Steady Flow Conditions

The thermochemical changes occurring prior to spontaneous ignition were investigated for homogeneous mixtures of 2,2,4 trimethylepentane (isooctane) and air in a steady flow apparatus of unique design. Measurements were also made of the ignition times of these mixtures over a range of pressures, temperatures, and fuel-air ratios. Most of the observable thermodynamic and chemical changes occurred in the last 10–25% of the ignition period. Principal among these changes were thermal decomposition of the isooctane to form isobutylene and probably isobutane; the appearance of significant quantities of propylene, ethylene, methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide; and a temperature rise of from about 200 to500 F. Most significant among the results was the observation that the preignition changes for the entire range of conditions tested correlate with a normalized reaction time.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Effects of Thermocouple Materials

The object of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the catalytic effects of all the commonly used thermocouple materials in lean mixtures of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, propane, and methane in air. Up to 1800 F, wires of platinum, palladium, iridium, platinum plus 15% iridium, and the two elements of the Platinel thermocouple were found to catalyze the combustion of mixtures of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane in air. Gold, silver, Chromel, Alumel, and constantan wires showed no catalysis of any mixture. Base-metal thermocouples are therefore recommended for accurate determinations of temperatures of gaseous mixtures containing combustible materials.
Technical Paper

Ethyl Alcohol and Gasoline as a Modern Motor Fuel

An investigation is being conducted to explore the use of ethanol-gasoline blends in unmodified present-day automotive engines. Results of the program thus far show that, when 25% ethanol was used in lieu of tetraethyl lead in a catalytically cracked base gasoline, the percentage of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust effluent was significantly reduced. Combustion chamber deposit weights were sharply reduced with the ethanol-gasoline blends under the endurance conditions selected. Performance of the 25% ethanol blend closely approximated that of the same base gasoline blended with tel, but specific fuel consumption was generally increased at part throttle.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Alcohol as a Motor Fuel

Alcohol has been promoted and used as a motor fuel for more than 50 years. However, United States ethyl alcohol production is small compared with gasoline production. High latent heat of vaporization of alcohol makes possible some increase of power over gasoline. The heating value of alcohol is low and energy content of alcohol blends is less than that of gasoline; fuel consumption of blends is therefore increased. The ability of ethanol to improve the octane number of gasoline has diminished as the octane number of gasoline has improved. There is no published evidence that alcohols can appreciably reduce air pollution problems.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance of Alcohol and Hydrocarbon Fuels

Three factors are of consequence when considering the comparative performance of alcohols and hydrocarbons as spark ignition engine fuels. These are: relative amounts of products of combustion produced per unit of inducted charge, energy inducted per unit of charge, and latent heat differences among the fuels. Simple analysis showed significant increases in output can be expected from the use of methyl alcohol as compared to hydrocarbon and somewhat lesser improvement can be expected from ethyl alcohol. Attendant increases in fuel consumption, disproportionate to the power increase, can also be predicted. More sophisticated analysis, based upon thermodynamic charts of combustion products, do not necessarily improve correspondence between prediction and engine results.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Induction System Deposit Formation

Basic information on gasolines which cause damaging induction system (intake port and valve) deposits in ground vehicle engines was obtained. Several fuels of known depositing tendencies were charcoal filtered and the absorbant extracted with chloroform and acetone. The adsorbant was then eluted with isopropyl alcohol in a silica gel column to obtain a concentrate. This concentrate was further subdivided in a column of magnesium silicate by a repeated elution sequence using n-pentane and methanol, obtaining a 97% all inclusive induction system deposit extract -- representing about 10-500 ppm of the fuel. The results were confirmed by both bench and engine tests. An identification of these induction system deposit precursors was made by means of elemental, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectral analyses. The induction system deposit precursors were found to consist primarily of long chain oxygen and nitrogen containing compounds such as amides and carboxylic acids.
Technical Paper

The 17.6 Engine, Its Design, Development, and Applications

Major engine-design features of the 17.6 cu in. engine are described and engine development is traced by photographs and sectional drawings. Fuel testing with the 17.6 engine produced these results: ratings were obtained of many API-NACA pure hydrocarbons, which permitted relating variable compression-ratio results with supercharged results; Army-Navy performance numbers above 100 were established; the most sensitive fuels were indicated to be most prone to failure by preignition. The engine also contributed greatly to the development of spark plugs. The catalytic effects of spark plug electrode materials on the ignition of methyl alcohol and unleaded benzene are discussed.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen from Methanol for Fuel Cells

Bench scale studies demonstrated the production of hydrogen from an equimolar methanol-water mixture in a single bed of either a precious metal or a base metal catalyst. In either case, the catalyst was effective both in dissociating the methanol and in promoting the water gas shift reaction to a significant degree. With the base metal catalyst, yields in excess of 90P/o of theoretical were obtained at 100 psig and 700 F based on the total hydrogen content of the feed. It was further demonstrated that by lining the reaction chamber with a supported silver-palladium alloy membrane, ultrapure hydrogen suitable for direct use in fuel cells could be produced in a compact integral reactor-purification system.
Technical Paper

The Development of Fuel Batteries for the Commercial Market

Most research and development work on fuel cells is government supported and directed toward military and space applications, but sizable private activity is directed toward developing fuel cells for commercial applications. Of the many requirements which a commercial fuel-cell system must meet, cost and reliability are most difficult of attainment. Development of an electrochemical device consuming hydrogen and oxygen has passed from the research to the engineering development stage. Compromise fuels include methanol and ammonia. A hydrocarbon/air fuel battery offers challenging research problems, and extensive effort being applied suggests that rapid progress may be expected.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Methane and Air, and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

This is a continuation of the presentation of thermodynamic properties of selected fuel-air mixtures in chart form, suitable for utilization in engine performance calculations. Methane and propane, representative of natural gas and LPG are the two fuels considered. Using these charts, comparisons are made between the performance to be expected with these gaseous fuels compared to octane, as representative of gasoline. Reduced engine power is predicted and this is confirmed by experience of other investigators.
Technical Paper

Gross Chemical Kinetics from Motored Piston Engines

The paper describes the computational and experimental approach of deriving gross chemical kinetic data of the combustion of common fuels using a motored engine. The approach is based on the accurate calculation of the rate of heat release due to autoignition reactions. Kinetic data of the combustion of n-heptane, propane, and methane in air together with the role of the presence of a higher hydrocarbon vapour such as n-heptane with methane and propane are presented and discussed mainly in relation to dual-fuel engine phenomena.
Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel/Air Fuel-Cell Power Systems

This paper considers the practical feasibilty of an overall vehicle power system and the likelihood of developing a fuel-cell electric car at an acceptable price in the next decade. High-temperature fuel cells are discounted because of long start-up time and the weight of the individual units. The most feasible direct-fueled fuel battery is the methanol/air and hydrazine/air systems. The advantages of this type fuel cell are simplicity, instantaneous start-up capability, instantaneous availability of reactants, and a simple control for maintaining the proper concentration of fuel. Methanol is the preferred soluble fuel since it is relatively inexpensive; whereas hydrazine is toxic and mildly corrosive. The fuel cell will be acceptable only when it is economically justified in the environment in which it is introduced. The sole criteria of reduced levels of atmospheric pollution will not be sufficient justification for development of a fuel-cell car.