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Book

Hydrogen, The Post-Oil Fuel?

2012-11-01
Hydrogen, energy vector for the future? Or, on the contrary, limited to its current applications in the field of chemistry and refining for decades to come, possibly even until the end of the century? There is much controversy over this issue and two sides to the argument. Advocates of the hydrogen civilization consider that, following a technological revolution hydrogen will play a universal role alongside electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels, especially (but not only) in transport, leading to radical elimination of CO2 emissions. For the skeptics, and even outspoken opponents, hydrogen will remain restricted to its current applications due to the insoluble problems inherent to its generalized use, especially in transport. This book highlights the increasing and inevitable role of "energy" hydrogen – as opposed to chemical hydrogen – in the key sectors of transport and "clean" electricity production.
Book

Everything Works Wonderfully

2014-07-01
EVERYTHING WORKS WONDERFULLY is a 250-page A4 softback book written to provide a structured source of guidance and reference information on Servitization and the management of physical assets for people at all levels in industry: • Senior executives considering the expansion of their businesses into the provision of Asset Management services for the products they design and manufacture; • Middle management wishing to know what needs to be done to look after the assets they are responsible for and who to approach for help; • ‘Hands-on’ engineers looking for contacts and advice on detailed tools and techniques. • Academics may also find the book useful as a source of contacts and ideas for research.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an LPG Lean-Burn Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1513
Performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn engine for heavy duty vehicles were measured. The piston cavity, swirl ratio, propane - butane fuel ratio, and EGR were varied to investigate their effects on combustion, and thus engine performance. Three piston cavities were tested: a circular flat-bottomed cavity with sloped walls (called the “bathtub” cavity), a round bottomed cavity (called the “dog dish” cavity), and a special high-turbulence cavity (called the “nebula” cavity). Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. It was capable of maintaining leaner combustion, thus resulting in the lowest NOx emissions. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, as the propane composition increased, cyclic variation fell, NOx emissions increased, and thermal efficiency was improved.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Testing Cycles Development: A New Methodology

2000-06-19
2000-01-1860
Testing cycles for heavy-duty vehicles are an important topic for authorities, manufacturers, fleet owners, etc. in order to assess exhaust gas emissions and fuel consumption. A new methodology was developed to derive representative testing cycles from velocity versus time driving information. During the development, the work was focussed on city-buses, but the methodology can be applied to heavy-duty vehicles in general. The testing cycles are ‘distance-based’, meaning they impose goal speeds at each location. This implies that during acceleration phases, the accelerator-pedal - and gear lever in case of manual transmission - can be operated in a realistic way. The techniques for deriving this kind of testing cycle are proposed. Results of on-board emission and fuel consumption measurements employing these testing cycles are presented for two 19 tons, 160kW city buses, equipped with respectively a diesel and a CNG (stoechiometric) engine, and a 10 tons 112 kW diesel delivery truck.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1811
In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.
Technical Paper

The Optimum Layout of Engine Mounting by Dynamic Analysis

1999-11-15
1999-01-3717
First of all, we would like to introduce the basic engine mounting layout analysis by the equation of motion and the FEM simulation. For the heavy-duty vehicle, the 4 supporting points engine mounting is basic, but the other types, such as 3 and 5 points also exist. So, we researched what is the best layout to isolate the vibration and support the engine dynamic torque among 11 layout systems by the analyses of eigen value, the frequency response, and the transient response. According to these above studies, when considering all the various criteria, the best engine mounting is the sloping layout. It is the 3rd best for the reduction of engine idling vibration and is the 2nd best against the shock torque.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Profiling Tapered Roller Bearings - Matching Driveline Component Performance to the Demands of Higher Horsepower Engines of Heavy Duty Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3767
The heavy-duty trucking industry is continuing to move toward the use of higher horsepower engines. Engines exceeding 450 horsepower have become increasingly popular, with 500 - 600 horsepower engines expected to share a significant portion of the truck engine market in the next decade {Reference 1}. Sometimes these higher horsepower engines are used with existing gross combined vehicle weight, simply to increase the speed at which payloads are delivered. However, when higher engine horsepower is used to transport increased payloads, the result is higher loads and stresses on all driveline components between the engine and the wheels. All components downstream of the engine could be adversely affected.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Elastic Distortions of a Piston Ring in the Reciprocating Air Brake Compressor Due to the Installation Stresses

1999-11-15
1999-01-3770
The objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation of elastic distortions of split piston rings that are used in lubricated and non-lubricated air brake compressors. Concepts of advanced stress analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) have been employed in this study. The analysis of elastic distortions (twist) of piston rings due to the installation stresses has been quite poorly documented in the technical literature. As a result, unjustifiable engineering assumptions are some time made which result in misleading design solutions. This paper demonstrates analytically and with the support of FEA the mechanical/geometrical parameters of a split ring which affect the twist of the ring during the installation in the cylinder bore, and the calculated magnitude of this twist along the ring circumference.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution of Piston Ring Pack Lubrication for Truck Air Brake Compressor

1999-11-15
1999-01-3769
This paper presents an analytical solution of piston ring pack lubrication for two-cylinder truck air brake compressor. A system of nonlinear equations with seven variables was developed to describe lubrication phenomena of the piston ring pack for both fully flooded and starvation conditions. The full mass conservation boundary conditions defined by JFO ([14],[15]) theory were employed for complete description of the cavitation algorithm with enclosed and open cavitation patterns. Impact of the piston ring design parameters such as offset, crown height, and tension on the oil transport, lubrication conditions and friction losses of the compressor were discussed in details.
Technical Paper

A Three Year Comparison of Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses

1999-11-15
1999-01-3738
This report details the experiences of two California public transit agencies that replaced aging diesel buses with new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses in 1994. The operating characteristics and costs of 170 natural gas buses are compared with 73 older diesel buses. The natural gas bus fleets have operated well and led to cost reductions in both fleets. The findings are particularly significant because both Sacramento Regional Transit District (RT) and SunLine Transit Agency have been using the same engine-chassis configuration, thus enabling a valid method to combine cost data for a large sample fleet of buses. The data indicate that labor for diesel equipment was almost twice that for CNG vehicles, parts were 25% more and fuel costs were nearly double. In 1997, CNG buses saved RT over $1 million in fuel, maintenance, parts and hazardous waste disposal, a 38% per mile reduction over the cost of their older diesel buses.
Technical Paper

Leveraging a Commercial Medium-Duty Product for the Heavy-Duty Pickup Truck Market

1999-11-15
1999-01-3743
Allison Transmission has developed a family of three new automatic transmission products, the 1000, 2000 and 2400 Series™, for the light and medium-duty commercial markets. This technical paper will discuss how Allison first identified the opportunity, established the market requirements, designed, and validated these new products.
Technical Paper

The New Allison HD4070 Transmission - Design, Development and Applications

1999-11-15
1999-01-3742
Allison Transmission has been a key player in the Military and Heavy Duty Commercial truck markets for many years. These tough vocations require transmissions that are not only capable of heavy loads, rigorous duty cycles, and proven reliability, but also provide value for the end-user and maintain compatibility with leading edge technological improvements of engines and other parts of the vehicle system. The Allison HD4070 transmission is one of the latest transmission offerings from Allison Transmission to meet the “next generation” heavy-duty vehicle needs. This product increases value to the vehicle manufacturer and customer, and provides compatibility with the fast changing electronics capabilities of modern vehicle systems and engines. These improvements are offered in a durable design that has been the trademark of Allison transmissions in these markets.
Technical Paper

Vocational and Body Builder Controls Features of the Allison 1000/2000/2400 Series™ Automatic Transmission

1999-11-15
1999-01-3744
Light and Medium Duty Trucks (N.A. Classes 2–7) make up of a wide variety of vehicle configurations. These vehicles, in addition to providing the basic hauling needs of the industry, also provide distinct operational features dictated by the vocation they serve. This results in additional auxiliary equipment and control features being employed. The control system for Allison Transmission's new 1000/2000/2400 Series™ transmission was designed to satisfy the many requirements of this complex market. This paper will describe these features and how they interact with various control aspects of the vehicle. Also, future control features will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Aluminum Radiator for Heavy Duty Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3721
The Aluminum radiator has a number of features that make it very attractive for vehicle applications in general. Superior durability and reliability in conjunction with its excellent specific values for costs, performance and weight warrant a favorable solution for Heavy Duty Trucks. Behr has been supplying Aluminum radiators for trucks in Europe for over 10 years and in North America for 4 years. This paper examines the results based on this long-term experience. It reviews the field experience compared to Copper/Brass radiators, examines design and mounting features as well as the manufacturing processes. Durability, external and internal corrosion resistance are emphasized as essential characteristics. A special focus is the thermodynamics of Aluminum radiators. The paper reviews methods to simulate the thermodynamic behavior of radiators and the progress in the specific performance, based on the development of improved radiator core matrices.
Technical Paper

Cooling System Cleaning through the use of a Chelating Cleaner Filter

1999-11-15
1999-01-3720
A new method of cleaning cooling systems has been developed that uses a filter with a chelating alkaline cleaner that is released into the cooling system. The cleaner filter is installed in place of the inhibitor filter on heavy-duty engines and left in place for one service cycle. After the service cycle, the cleaner filter is removed, the coolant tested, and the inhibitor filter is reinstalled. This represents a major change in the method traditionally used for cooling system cleaning.
Technical Paper

Urea-SCR System Demonstration and Evaluation for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3722
The Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis (ITS-Davis) has brought together a group of public and industrial partners to demonstrate and evaluate the Siemens-Westinghouse Urea-Selective Catalyst Reduction System (SINOx™). The SINOx System has the potential to generate major reductions in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the volatile organic fraction (VOF) of particulate (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines, without increasing fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This demonstration began with engine bench testing at Detroit Diesel Corporation to calibrate the system to attain 1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions in the transient portion of the US-FTP on a 1999 Series 60 engine that has a 4 g/bhp-hr emission level. The second phase of the project entails an on-highway demonstration of a set of ten, Freightliner Class 8 heavy-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles are part of the Valley Material Transport fleet based in French Camp, California.
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