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Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

System Integration and Analysis in a Virtual Prototype Environment

1999-11-15
1999-01-3712
The design and analysis of vehicle wire harnesses presents a daunting challenge to the modern day transportation industry. The continual increase in on-board vehicle electronics, driven by both consumer and legislative demands, is causing an exponential increase in wire harness complexity. To meet these challenges, software tools have been developed to assist harness designer the various tasks from system partitioning to signal integrity analysis. This paper will explore how the SaberHarness™ tool suite can be used as a virtual prototype environment for a complete system design and analysis including wire harness interconnectivity.
Technical Paper

Standardizing Documentation for Standard Products: Creating Re-Usable FMEAs by Means of Generic Structures Based on Functional Groups

1999-11-15
1999-01-3711
Re-use of FMEA data and associated QS-9000 and APQP documentation is not only appropriate, but also efficient. Computerized document management systems allow for making changes quickly and easily throughout all affected documents and facilitate the recycling of documentation for future generations of design. Using IQ-FMEA quality software, this paper will demonstrate effective and efficient techniques for structured data re-use by means of a strategy of functionally-motivated generic structure templates.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Approach with Graphical User Interface for Simulating Truck Dynamics

1999-11-15
1999-01-3705
The use of computer simulation of vehicle dynamics as a development tool has come into its own over the past few decades. “Simulated” testing on a computer makes possible a degree of control and repeatability that allows the automotive engineer to determine the influence of design variables on different aspects of dynamic performance in ways that would be difficult or impossible by experimental methods. One of the software tools receiving wide acceptance for simulating trucks and combination vehicles is Truck-Sim™. The attraction of this program arises in part from its foundation of truck modeling methods developed at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute over the past two decades, and the use of an advanced graphical user interface to make the software both easy to understand and easy to use by design and development engineers.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Commercial Vehicle Air Dryer Efficiency

1999-11-15
1999-01-3774
The measurement of pressure dew point is a well-known method of describing air quality, however this value seldom assists commercial vehicle OEM’s and operators in establishing specific air drying requirements for their vehicles. This paper describes the method and examines the results of using the dryer capacity method specified in SAE document J2384, section 5.2, for determining air dryer performance, and compares the results of various air-drying techniques and the impact on vehicle system design to give the most efficient solution. The paper further goes on to discuss how the drying capacity can also be influenced by the design of the air dryer to meet a wide range of vehicle applications both in Europe and North America. Since J2384 excludes continuous flow air dryers from the scope of the document, they will likewise be excluded from discussion here.
Technical Paper

Standards for Vehicle to Office Data Communication

1999-11-15
1999-01-3755
Modern trucking companies are finding mobile data communication to be significant for operating fleets cost effectively in a competitive environment. Today's systems pass both business data and vehicle technical data between the vehicle and the business office. The communications companies which created these innovations have done so with proprietary designs, as, of course, is necessary when new technology is developed. However, as the diversity of applications expands and the market matures, the need for standards becomes apparent. In this paper we will outline standards being considered by The Maintenance Council (TMC) of the American Trucking Association to allow interoperability between onboard electronics, mobile communication systems, and office software applications.
Technical Paper

TruCharge™ An Advanced System for Supporting Vehicle Batteries and Eliminating Unscheduled Battery Maintenance

1999-11-15
1999-01-3748
There has been minimal innovation in the area of battery test and diagnostic support over the past 20 years. Battery testing has been limited to measurement of terminal voltage, electrolyte specific gravity measurements and load testing. This paper describes an innovative and newly developed battery analyzer/charger unit. The AlliedSignal TruCharge unit is capable of providing accurate state-of-charge (SOC), capacity as well as providing battery defect data via an automated test sequence that takes less than 20 seconds. It charges the battery quickly while minimizing the generation of hazardous hydrogen gas. The underlying technology is described along with the performance features and specifications of the unit. The unit is also capable of recovering sulfated lead acid batteries. The economic and environmental benefits of battery recovery are discussed. This unit is developed based upon extensive market analysis.
Technical Paper

High-Level In-Vehicle Decision Support

1999-11-15
1999-01-3752
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Multilink Independent Front Suspension for Class A Motor Homes

1999-11-15
1999-01-3731
Motorized recreational vehicles with front axle load ratings that exceed 4,086 kilograms, or 9,000 pounds, are traditionally equipped with rigid I-beam type axles. These axles are used in this application because of their ability to carry high axle loads at a reasonable cost, and their durability history in truck usage. Recently, several manufacturers have used independent type front suspension designs. A multi-link type suspension offers some unique solutions in optimizing the front suspension design. This paper describes the performance goals (i.e. Suspension Design Factors) and tradeoffs in pursuit of the final design. Establishing these SDF’s, achieving them and their relationship to vehicle performance are the focus of this paper. Plots of the kinematic and elastic characteristics are included to illustrate some of the unique features of this multi-link suspension.
Technical Paper

Environmental Standards for Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids and Correlation of Laboratory and Field Performance

2000-09-11
2000-01-2543
Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Lines of Code

2000-09-11
2000-01-2571
The objective of this paper is to delineate the importance of pictures, i.e., graphical models, in documenting and communicating the high level functionality of a complex system, primarily for embedded software requirements and specifications. An overview is given of various graphical techniques and methodologies for modeling complex systems. The aspects (advantages and disadvantages) relating to different categories of modeling are outlined. Discussion of complex systems extends beyond the functional/software aspects of product design to both process and project modeling. The author shares personal observations and experiences with modeling, and tools used.
Technical Paper

Anhydrous Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluids

2000-09-11
2000-01-2557
There is an ongoing interest in identifying new biodegradable hydraulic fluid compositions that may be used as alternatives to mineral oil in many hydraulic applications such as mobile off-highway equipment. To date, many basestocks have been proposed including: vegetable oils, polyol esters, diesters, synthetic hydrocarbons and others. One basestock is gaining interest as alternative, biodegradable, fire-resistant hydraulic fluid; anhydrous poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) fluids. However, the use of these fluids is not new; they are simply being rediscovered. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the discovery and development of anhydrous PAGs as hydraulic fluids. This discussion will include: an overview of PAG chemistry, properties and hydraulic pump performance.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

2000-06-19
2000-01-2198
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

TRAFFIC SAFETY OF HEAVY VEHICLES, (ACCIDENT ANALYSIS, ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION)

2001-06-04
2001-06-0244
This paper provides an overview of safety situations of commercial vehicles on the basis of databank concerning more than 4500 accidents. Different safety points of view are analysed and evaluated. A special accident reconstruction program (CARAT) is interpreted which is able to solve the traffic and accident questions in practical approach. It summarises conclusions and proposals on road safety of heavy vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE OF AN OFF-ROAD VEHICLE

2001-06-04
2001-06-0250
In paper, the virtual prototype of the rolling – guiding – suspension system of an off-road vehicle is presented. The prototype has been made with the MBS software ADAMS, and takes into consideration the geometric restrictions as well as the nonlinear characteristics of the elastic and damping elements. The experiment designed is one frequently carried by the automotive manufacturers, namely dynamic with shock test, which consists in the sudden release of the car to fall on the ground from a given height. On the virtual prototype, a lot of measurements have been made having in view to optimize the dynamic behavior of the suspension system and to enhance the vehicle safety.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2001-05-14
2001-01-2067
In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Technical Paper

Basic Considerations for the Concepts of Wheeled off-Road Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0387
The demand for greater mobility on unprepared terrain in all seasons by agriculture, construction, and the military has stimulated interest in the study of off-road vehicles. Thus the use of automobiles for cross-country movements and the potential for building more efficient automobiles and vehicles with high off-road mobility has also increased significantly. The engineers and designers of off-road vehicles face a lack of generally recognized theories. Usually, the concept of terrain vehicles are developed very empirically and are based on principles of mechanics and land locomotion. The author presents a general overview on models and considerations for wheeled off-road vehicle concepts. First vehicle and soil are defined, then the interaction between these two elements is discussed. Based on these models, methods to predict and measure traction of off-road vehicles are evaluated. The relevant elements of off-road vehicles and their influence on mobility are presented.
Technical Paper

Some Aspects on Modeling of the Moving Forest Machines

2000-09-11
2000-01-2629
This paper concentrates on some important aspects, restrictions and problems that should be considered when modelling off-highway vehicles. The main modelling interest is focused on log forwarder machines, see Figure 1 but indicated principles are easily generalize to the other kind of vehicles and machines. The mechanics, hydraulics, hydrostatic propelling system with control system, tire-road-interaction and system interaction were modelled by using ADAMS® (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems, ADAMS is a registered trademark of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc.) dynamic simulation software. Also the modelling of flexible parts with lumped-mass approach and assumed modes methods are discussed. The matters are examined mainly from the point of view of modelling techniques with the ADAMS dynamic simulation software.
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