This recommended practice provides technicians with safe and efficient techniques and general equipment recommendations for servicing Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems in heavy duty and off-highway work machines. Presently, R-134a is the only approved refrigerant for use in mobile heavy duty and off-highway equipment and therefore this document primarily covers the servicing of R-134a systems. Since the technician may encounter other refrigerants a brief explanation on the identification safe handling of each refrigerant will be introduced.
This SAE Standard establishes the minimum performance and endurance requirements for coiled air brake tubing assemblies used for hookup between tractors, trailers and converter dollies. The Standards SAE J844 and SAE J246 along with J1131 must be consulted to determine the complete performance and endurance requirements of individual components of the system. Related TMC Recommended Practices may be consulted for information associated with selection, installation and inspection of these assemblies. This document is intended to set out requirements for the majority of conditions rather than for specialized applications or environments.
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for nonmetallic tubing as manufactured for use in air brake systems which tubing is different from that described in SAE J844. It is not intended to cover tubing for any portion of the system which operates continuously below - 40 degrees C or above +93 degrees C, above a maximum working gage pressure of 1.0 MPa, or in an area subject to attack by battery acid. This tubing is intended for use in the brake system for connections, which maintain a basically fixed relationship between components during vehicle operation. Coiled tube assemblies required for those installations where flexing occurs are covered by this document, SAE J1131 and SAE J2494-3, to the extent of setting minimum requirements on the essentially straight tube and tube fitting connections which are used in the construction of such assemblies.
J3078/4 specifies a uniform test method for measuring the contribution to operator environmental temperature provided by a heating, ventilating and air conditioning system operating in a specific ambient environment. The method might not determine the complete climatic environment of the operator since this is also affected by heat load from sources other than those on the machine, for example solar heating. J3708/6 is to be used in conjunction with J3078/4 to determine more accurately the complete heat loading on the operator enclosure. Minimum performance levels for the machine’s operator enclosure heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems are established in J3708/4.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to serve as a guide for standardization of features, dimensions, and configurations of balance weights for aluminum and steel wheels intended for use on Heavy Truck/Vehicles (Class 5-8) to assure good installation and retention of the balance weight. This document also provides test procedures and minimum performance requirements for testing balance weight retention.
Main topics are the development and the build-up of an 18ton hybrid truck with a parallel hybrid drivetrain. With this truck it is possible to drive up to 3 kilometers in the pure electric driving mode. Presenter Andreas Eglseer, Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co. KG
In 1991, Hino Motors, Ltd. (Hino) launched the world's first hybrid city buses in the market. Thereafter, Hino has improved its hybrid vehicle technology and applied it to various commercial vehicles including city buses, sightseeing buses, medium-duty trucks and light-duty trucks. Presenter Shigeru Suzuki , Hino Motors, Ltd Shigeru Suzuki , Hino Motors, Ltd
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept which promises the possibility to utilize CNG/biogas in a compression ignition engine maintaining a high compression ratio, made possible by the high knock resistance of methane, and the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency associated with Diesel combustion. Presenter Fredrik K�nigsson, AVL Sweden
Concerned with fuel consumption and emissions, especially public transportation in urban areas, the ELFA electric drive system has been developed for hybrid bus applications. This modular system provides bus manufactures a cost effective solution with a maximum degree of design flexibility. Presenter Joshua Nelke, siemens industry inc.
EGR coolers are used in combustion engines to reduce NOx emissions. However, heat transfer in these coolers also results in thermophoresis-temperature-gradient driven motion of suspended particles towards cooler regions-which leads to significant soot deposition. Presenter Meisam Mehravaran
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
The number of electronically controlled systems in commercial vehicles is increasing rapidly. Much of this electrical content is controlled using ECUs (Electronic Control Units) which share information using some type of networking technology, such as a CAN bus running the SAE J1939 protocol. Presenter Jeffrey Craig, Vector CANtech Inc.
These advanced checks have resulted in development of many new diagnostic monitors, of varying types, and a whole new internal software infrastructure to handle tracking, reporting, and self-verification of OBD related items. Due to this amplified complexity and the consequences surrounding a shortfall in meeting regulatory requirements, efficient and thorough validation of the OBD system in the powertrain control software is critical. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides the environment in which the needed efficiency and thoroughness for validating the OBD system can be achieved. A HIL simulation environment consisting of engine, aftertreatment, and basic vehicle models can be employed, providing the ability for software developers, calibration engineers, OBD experts, and test engineers to examine and validate both facets of OBD software: diagnostic monitors and diagnostic infrastructure (i.e., fault memory management).
Developing relatively cheap and widely available resources for heterogeneous solid catalyst synthesis is a promising approach for biodiesel fuel industry. Seashell which is essentially calcium carbonate can be used as a basic support for transesterification heterogeneous catalysts. In the present investigation, the alcoholysis of waste frying oil has been carried out using seashell-supported K3 PO4 as solid catalyst. Presenter Essam Oun Al-Zaini, PhD student, UNSW
Electrification and hybridization show great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing emission in heavy-duty vehicles. However, high battery cost is unavoidable due to the requirement for large batteries capable of providing high electric power for propulsion. Presenter Tae-Kyung Lee, Univ. of Michigan