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The Global Market for Automotive Turbochargers: 2015 edition

Since the last edition of this report in 2013, the demand on automakers has been relentless in terms of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions, thus driving increased sales of forced induction systems. The use of pressure charging techniques has therefore expanded significantly. Recent years have seen the ascendancy of the turbocharger and its use by almost every major global manufacturer.

Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025

Half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent, and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all. Over eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2025, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off- the- shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second- generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load. However, a more radical departure is the third- generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load.

Insight: Using Turbocharging in New Engine Design (DVD)

In "Using Turbocharging in New Engine Design" (9:23), engineers from Schaeffler Group USA and McLaren Performance Tech explain what turbocharging is, and what it can do to improve both the power output of an engine and its fuel efficiency. Another engineer from the General Motors Powertrain group talks about how turbocharging was used in the new engine design for the Cadillac CT6. This episode highlights: • The lessons learned from when turbocharging was first used to help heavy-duty trucks go uphill • The experience acquired from car racing using turbo-charged engines • The advantages of using turbo charging to decrease the size of engines without losing power output

Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.

Best Practices for In-Vehicle Network Development

The number of electronically controlled systems in commercial vehicles is increasing rapidly. Much of this electrical content is controlled using ECUs (Electronic Control Units) which share information using some type of networking technology, such as a CAN bus running the SAE J1939 protocol. Presenter Jeffrey Craig, Vector CANtech Inc.

Latest Advances for Commercial Vehicle Drivetrains, Powertrains, and Transmissions 2010

This technical paper collection contains 53 technical papers. Topics covered include engine exhaust aftertreatment and integration; hybrid vehicle integration and optimization; powertrain and drivetrain NVH; advanced transmission and driveline component design; diesel engine system design; fuel economy; alternative fuels; and advanced engine component design.
Journal Article

Exhaust Manifold Thermal Assessment with Ambient Heat Transfer Coefficient Optimization

Abstract Exhaust manifolds are one of the most important components on the engine assembly, which is mounted on engine cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds connect exhaust ports of cylinders to the turbine for turbocharged diesel engine therefore they play a significant role in the performance of engine system. Exhaust manifolds are subjected to very harsh thermal loads; extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. Therefore designing a durable exhaust manifold is a challenging task. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an effective tool to drive an exhaust manifold design at the early stage of engine development. Thus advanced CAE methodologies are required for the accurate prediction of temperature distribution. However, at the end of the development process, for the design verification purposes, various tests have to be carried out in engine dynamometer cells under severe operating conditions.
Journal Article

Sliding Mode Control of Hydraulic Excavator for Automated Grading Operation

Abstract Although ground grading is one of the most common tasks that hydraulic excavators perform in typical work sites, proper grading is not easy for less-skilled operators as it requires coordinated manipulation of multiple hydraulic cylinders. In order to help alleviate this difficulty, automated grading systems are considered as an effective alternative to manual operations of hydraulic excavators. In this article, a sliding mode controller design is presented for automated grading control of a hydraulic excavator. First, an excavator manipulator model is developed in Simulink by using SimMechanics and SimHydraulics toolboxes. Then, a sliding mode controller is designed to control the manipulator to trace a predefined trajectory for a grading task. For a comparison study, a PI controller is used to control the manipulator to perform a grading task following the same desired trajectory and the performance is compared with those obtained by the sliding mode controller.
Journal Article

Implementation and Optimization of a Variable-Speed Coolant Pump in a Powertrain Cooling System

Abstract This study investigates methods to precisely control a coolant pump in an internal combustion engine. The goal of this research is to minimize power consumption while still meeting optimal performance, reliability and durability requirements for an engine at all engine-operating conditions. This investigation achieves reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and improved powertrain performance. Secondary impacts include cleaner air for the earth, reduced operating costs for the owner, and compliance with US regulatory requirements. The study utilizes mathematical modeling of the cooling system using heat transfer, pump laws, and boiling analysis to set limits to the cooling system and predict performance changes.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Lubricating Gap Flow in Radial Piston Machines

Radial piston units find several applications in fluid power, offering benefits of low noise and high power density. The capability to generate high pressures makes radial piston pumps suitable for clamping function in machine tools and also to operate presses for sheet metal forming. This study is aimed at developing a comprehensive multidomain simulation tool to model the operation of a rotating cam type radial piston pump, with particular reference to the lubricating gap flow between the pistons and the cylinder block. The model consists of a first module which simulates the main flow through the unit according to a lumped parameter approach. This module evaluates the features of the displacing action accounting for the detailed evaluation of the machine kinematics and for the mechanical dynamics of the check valves used to control the timing for the connection of each piston chamber with the inlet and outlet port.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate and Pressure Drop through Angled Compact Heat Exchangers Relative to the Incoming Airflow

This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
Journal Article

Ride Optimization for a Heavy Commercial Vehicle

The ride comfort of the commercial vehicle is mainly affected by several vibration isolation systems such as the primary suspension system, engine mounting system and the cab mounting system. A rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck was built and analyzed in multi-body environment (ADAMS). The method applying the excitation on the wheels center and the engine mountings in time domain was presented. The variables' effects on the ride performance were studied by design of experiment (DOE). The optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/View, iSIGHT and Matlab. It was found that the vertical root mean square (RMS) acceleration and frequency-weighted RMS acceleration on the seat track were reduced about 17% and 11% respectively at different speeds relative to baseline according to ISO 2631-1.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Journal Article

Dynamic Analysis of an Excavator During Digging Operation

Researches for automation of hydraulic excavators have been conducted for laborsaving, improved efficiency of operations and increased worker's safety improvement. Authors' final goal is to develop automatic digging system which can realize the high efficiency. Therefore, it is thought that appropriate digging control algorithm is important for the automation. For this goal, this paper shows a dynamics model of the backhoe excavator and simulations using such models. Detailed dynamic models are needed from the point of view of the control engineering. Authors evaluate effectiveness of automatic digging algorithm by simulation models. In this research, the linkage mechanism which contains the closed loops is modeled based on the Newton-Euler formulation, where motion equation is derived. Moreover, we apply a soil model for simulation, based on the two dimensional distinct element method (DEM), in order to reproduce reaction force from grounds.
Journal Article

Digging Trajectory Optimization by Soil Models and Dynamics Models of Excavator

Researches for automated construction machinery have been conducted for labor-saving, improved work efficiency and worker's safety, where a tracking control function was proposed as one of the key control system strategies for highly automated productive hydraulic excavators. An optimized digging trajectory that assures as much soils scooped as possible and less energy consumption is critical for an automated hydraulic excavator to improve work efficiency. Simulation models that we used to seek an optimized digging trajectory in this study consist of soil models and front linkage models of a hydraulic excavator. We developed two types of soil models. One is called wedge models used to calculate reaction forces from soils acting on a bucket during digging operation, based on the earth pressure theory. The other is called Distinct Element Method (DEM) model used to analyze soil behaviors and estimate amounts of soils scooped and reaction forces quantitatively.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Multi-In-Cylinder Pyrometer Measurements and Exhaust Soot Emissions Under Steady and Transient Operation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
Journal Article

Efficient, Active Radiator-Cooling System

A new concept for an efficient radiator-cooling system is presented for reducing the size or increasing the cooling capacity of vehicle coolant radiators. Under certain conditions, the system employs active evaporative cooling in addition to conventional finned air cooling. In this regard, it is a hybrid radiator-cooling system comprised of the combination of conventional air-side finned surface cooling and active evaporative water cooling. The air-side finned surface is sized to transfer required heat under all driving conditions except for the most severe. In the later case, evaporative cooling is used in addition to the conventional air-side finned surface cooling. Together the two systems transfer the required heat under all driving conditions. However, under most driving conditions, only the air-side finned surface cooling is required. Consequently, the finned surface may be smaller than in conventional radiators that utilize air-side finned surface cooling exclusively.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.