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Video

Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

2011-12-05
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University
Video

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Video

Best Practices for In-Vehicle Network Development

2011-12-05
The number of electronically controlled systems in commercial vehicles is increasing rapidly. Much of this electrical content is controlled using ECUs (Electronic Control Units) which share information using some type of networking technology, such as a CAN bus running the SAE J1939 protocol. Presenter Jeffrey Craig, Vector CANtech Inc.
Collection

Latest Advances for Commercial Vehicle Drivetrains, Powertrains, and Transmissions 2010

2010-09-27
This technical paper collection contains 53 technical papers. Topics covered include engine exhaust aftertreatment and integration; hybrid vehicle integration and optimization; powertrain and drivetrain NVH; advanced transmission and driveline component design; diesel engine system design; fuel economy; alternative fuels; and advanced engine component design.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxidation Upon Long-term Storage of Karanja Biodiesel on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1200
The presence of unsaturated methyl esters in biodiesel makes it susceptible to oxidation and fuel quality degradation upon long-term storage. In the present work, the effects of oxidation of Karanja biodiesel upon long-term storage on the combustion and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty truck diesel engine are studied. The Karanja biodiesel is stored for one year in a 200 litres steel barrel at room conditions to mimic commercial storage conditions. The results obtained show that compared to diesel, the start of injection of fresh and aged biodiesels are advanced by ~2-degree crank angle, and the ignition delay time is reduced. Aged biodiesel showed a slightly smaller ignition delay compares to fresh biodiesel. The fuel injection and combustion characteristics of fresh and aged biodiesels were similar at all the load conditions. Both fresh and aged biodiesels produced higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and lower smoke emissions compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis and In-Cylinder Visualization of Conventional Diesel and Isobaric Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0040
Compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC), isobaric combustion can achieve a similar or higher indicated efficiency, lower heat transfer losses, reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions; however, with a penalty of soot emissions. While the engine performance and exhaust emissions of isobaric combustion are well known, the overall flame development, in particular, the flow-field details within the flames are unclear. In this study, the performance analysis of CDC and two isobaric combustion cases was conducted, followed by high-speed imaging of Mie-scattering and soot luminosity in an optically accessible, single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. From the soot luminosity imaging, qualitative flow-fields were obtained using flame image velocimetry (FIV). The peak motoring pressure (PMP) and peak cylinder pressure (PCP) of CDC are kept fixed at 50 and 70 bar, respectively.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations of an Optically Accessible Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2021-09-05
2021-24-0045
The combustion process in spark-ignition engines can vary considerably cycle by cycle, which may result in unstable engine operation. The phenomena amplify in natural gas (NG) spark-ignition (SI) engines due to the lower NG laminar flame speed compared to gasoline, and more so under lean burn conditions. The main goal of this study was to investigate the main sources and the characteristics of the cycle-by-cycle variation in heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) engines converted to NG SI operation. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder optically-accessible CI engine with a flat bowl-in piston that was converted to NG SI. The engine was operated at medium load under lean operating conditions, using pure methane as a natural gas surrogate. The CI to SI conversion was made through the addition of a low-pressure NG injector in the intake manifold and of a NG spark plug in place of the diesel injector.
Technical Paper

Modeling Study of the Battery Pack for the Electric Conversion of a Commercial Vehicle

2021-09-05
2021-24-0112
Many aspects of battery electric vehicles are very challenging from the engineering point of view in terms of safety, weight, range, and drivability. Commercial vehicle engines are often subjected to high loads even at low speeds and this can lead to an intense increment of the battery pack temperature and stress of the cooling system. For these reasons the optimal design of the battery pack and the relative cooling system is essential. The present study deals with the challenge of designing a battery pack that satisfies both the conditions of lowest weight and efficient temperature control. The trade-off between the battery pack size and the electrical stress on the cells is considered. The electric system has the aim to substitute a 3.0 liters compression ignition engine mainly for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study between Abrasion Techniques to Improve the Adhesion of Rubber and Metal Bond for Commercial Vehicle Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0253
Engine mounts are an integral part of the vehicle that helps in reducing the vibrations generated from the engine. Engine mounts require a simple yet complicated amalgamation of two very different materials, steel and rubber. Proper adhesion between the two is required to prevent any part failure. Therefore, it becomes important that a comprehensive study is done to understand the mating phenomenon of both. A good linking between rubber and metal substrate is governed by surface pretreatment. Various methodologies such as mechanical and chemical are adopted for the same. This paper aims to present a comparative study as to which surface pretreatment has an edge over other techniques in terms of separation force required to break the bonding between the two parts. The study also presents a cost comparison between the techniques so that the best possible technique can be put to use in the commercial vehicle industry.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise and Tactile Vibration Refinement of Commercial Vehicle Through Experimental Analysis

2021-08-31
2021-01-1073
Noise & Vibration refinement of automotive vehicles is becoming important parameter due to its influence on environmental aspect and comfort perceived by occupants. NVH parameters are driving factors in current vehicle design strategy. Drivers comfort is extremely important, and driver’s expectations from commercial and heavy-duty trucks are as good as refined passenger cars. Other trends in commercial vehicle segment such as engine downsizing, weight, cost reduction and meeting stringent emission norms have influenced vehicle design dynamics. These parameters are critical and often contribute to vehicle NVH issues. Considering these new trends in commercial vehicle segment, it becomes challenging for an NVH engineer to provide optimized solutions. NVH issues could be related to the various subsystems such as driveline, axle, transmission steering wheel etc. in the vehicle and its resonant frequencies.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Fuel (Diesel + CNG) Engine for Off-Road Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0119
The evolution of engine technology has so far seen the most beneficial side of progress in the fields of transportation, agriculture, and mobility. With the advent of innovation, there is also an impact on our environment that needs to be balanced. This is where fuels like CNG, LPG, LNG, etc. outperform conventional fossil fuels in terms of pollution & operational cost. This paper enlightens on the use of innovative dual-fuel technology where diesel & CNG fuels are used for combustion simultaneously inside the combustion chamber. Dual fuel system adaptation for farm application ensures self-reliance of the farmer where he can generate Bio-CNG to use the renewable fuel for farming making him less dependent on conventional fossil fuel thus promoting a green economy. The dual-fuel system is adapted to the existing in-use diesel engine with minimum modifications. This makes it feasible to retrofit a CNG fuel system on an existing diesel engine to operate it on dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Heavy Duty CNG Engine Based on Its Aspiration and Fuel System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0117
Engine calibration involves the interaction of electronic components with various engine systems like intake system, exhaust system, ignition system, etc. Emissions are the by-products of combustion of fuel and air inside the combustion chamber. After-treatment systems generally take up the responsibility to scrape out harmful emissions from the engines. However, a good engine calibration will focus on emission reduction at source i.e., during the combustion itself. Thus, the intake of air and fuel in proper amount at each engine operating point is crucial for optimized engine performance and minimal emissions. The Intake system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine and it plays an important role to improve its performance and emission. Generally, for a SI engine, maintaining the stoichiometric A/F ratio is a challenging endeavour from an operational standpoint.
Technical Paper

The Study and Deep Insights of Port Injection Turbocharged CNG Engine Development for Trucks and Buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0214
The intensifying demand of cleaner fuelled vehicles considering current norms of BSIV and upcoming stringent norms of BSVI with low cost solutions has promoted the development of CNG and dual fuel vehicles. CNG vehicle is anticipated to discover its extensive use for environment fortification and effective deployment of energy capitals. Thus, CNG vehicles can be pretty effective in averting environment deterioration. CNG has low carbon to hydrogen ratio, this leads to very low CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel vehicles. CNG engines have the potential of low NOx and particulate emissions. Natural gas vehicle development has been directed on the way to current use of direct injection and port injection with S.I. engines. Generally for low cost development, all OEMs prefer optimization of existing engines. Similarly for this project, a diesel engine was converted to S.I. engine for development of low emission CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Open Station Tractor OEL Noise Assessment in the Virtual Environment

2021-09-22
2021-26-0310
There is a higher demand for quieter tractors in the agri-industry, as the continued exposure to noise levels have disastrous effects on operator’s health. To meet the world-wide regulatory norms and to be the global market leader, its mandatory to develop the comfortable tractor which meets homologation requirements and customer expectations. Typically, Operator Ear Level (OEL) noise has been evaluated in the test, after First Proto has been made. This approach increases cost associated with product development due to late changes of modifications and testing trails causing delay in time-to-market aspect. Hence, there is a need to develop the methodology for Predicting tractor OEL noise in virtual environment and propose changes at early stage of product development. At first, full vehicle comprising of skid, sheet metals and Intake-exhaust systems modelled has been built using Finite Element (FE) Preprocessor.
Technical Paper

Air Quality Improvement in Air Conditioner Bus Saloon Through Carbon Activated Filters for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0312
The air purifier industry has seen a growth in terms of demand and sales lately. All credit goes to massive Industrialization in developing countries such as India. The most harmful of the pollutants are PM 2.5 articulates and NOx Emissions. This leads to the new trend of customers become health and comfort conscious and willing to pay more for better and improved transportation. To satisfy these demands, COEM’s are developing more numbers of Air conditioning buses. Although the OEM’s are meeting this demand of quantity, the quality of air from air conditioner is still suffer. One of the main reasons for this poor air quality is because of the ineffectiveness of conventional air conditioner air filters to control particulate materials i.e. PM2.5, biological pollutants i.e. microbes, bacteria, viruses, and gaseous pollutants i.e. CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, O3 & VOCs in air. As per various researches, health problems associated with bus occupant compartment air quality appear more frequently.
Technical Paper

Innovative Approach to Address BS VI Challenges of NVH Refinement and Total Cost of Ownership of Small Commercial Vehicles with Naturally Aspirated Two Cylinder Diesel Engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0284
Small commercial vehicles (SCVs) are the drivers of a major part of India’s indirect economy, providing the most efficient means of transport. With the introduction of BS-VI norms, some major overhauls have been done to the SCV models to meet BS VI norms in challenging timeline for early market entry. This forced to automotive designers towards challenge of cost competitiveness as well as refinement level to survive in this competitive market. This paper explains the systematic approach used to overcome challenges of higher tactile vibrations, higher in-cab noise because of BS VI requirement in 2 cycle engine required for small commercial vehicle. The solutions were need to be worked out without compromising the other performance attributes like total cost of ownership, fuel economy, ease of servicing and cost effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Integration of Clutch Housing and Transmission Housing in Light-Duty Trucks for Powertrain Downsizing using Simulation Tools and Experimentally Validated

2021-09-22
2021-26-0376
Downsizing and Light weighting is the latest trend in the automotive industry to achieve more fuel efficient, compact and cost effective design of vehicles. Powertrain components compromise of more than 45% of the total vehicle weight. Automakers are putting significant efforts to reduce the weight of power train components. Integrated design of aluminum Engine Head and Intake manifold has been successfully implemented. Now currently we have identified the gear box housings for downsizing in light duty trucks i.e. Existing light duty trucks Cast Iron transmission. This design has been successfully modified with integrated clutch housing and transmission housing, using lightweight aluminum as the new material, using simulation tools. This lead to weight savings of up to 30% and cost savings of 20-25% as compared to existing cast iron designs. Using an integrated design reduces the assembly cost, makes the design more compact and gives better weight balance.
Technical Paper

Assessment & Optimization of Front End Cooling Module of a Commercial Vehicle by CFD Simulation & Prototype Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-0164
Overall cycle time and prototype testing are significantly decreased by assessment of cooling module performance in the design stage itself. Hence, Front End Cooling and Thermal Management are essential components of the vehicle design process. Performance of the cooling module depends upon a variety of factors like frontal opening, air flow, under-hood sub-systems, module positioning, front grill design, fan operation. Effects of design modifications on the engine cooling performance are quantified by utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool FluentTM. Vehicle frontal configuration is captured in the FE model considering cabin, cargo and underbody components. Heat Exchanger module is modelled as a porous medium to simulate the fluid flow. Performance data for the Heat Exchanger module is generated using the 1D KuliTM software. In this paper, CFD simulation of Front End Cooling is performed for maximum torque and maximum power operating conditions.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

2018-07-05
Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
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