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Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Multi-In-Cylinder Pyrometer Measurements and Exhaust Soot Emissions Under Steady and Transient Operation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0177
Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0012
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Diffusive Air Jet Combustion Chamber and Its Effect on DI Diesel Engine Combustion and Exhaust Emissions

2015-01-14
2015-26-0105
An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower the trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect, a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that they affect local in-cylinder emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis and In-Cylinder Visualization of Conventional Diesel and Isobaric Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0040
Compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC), isobaric combustion can achieve a similar or higher indicated efficiency, lower heat transfer losses, reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions; however, with a penalty of soot emissions. While the engine performance and exhaust emissions of isobaric combustion are well known, the overall flame development, in particular, the flow-field details within the flames are unclear. In this study, the performance analysis of CDC and two isobaric combustion cases was conducted, followed by high-speed imaging of Mie-scattering and soot luminosity in an optically accessible, single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. From the soot luminosity imaging, qualitative flow-fields were obtained using flame image velocimetry (FIV). The peak motoring pressure (PMP) and peak cylinder pressure (PCP) of CDC are kept fixed at 50 and 70 bar, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Fuel (Diesel + CNG) Engine for Off-Road Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0119
The evolution of engine technology has so far seen the most beneficial side of progress in the fields of transportation, agriculture, and mobility. With the advent of innovation, there is also an impact on our environment that needs to be balanced. This is where fuels like CNG, LPG, LNG, etc. outperform conventional fossil fuels in terms of pollution & operational cost. This paper enlightens on the use of innovative dual-fuel technology where diesel & CNG fuels are used for combustion simultaneously inside the combustion chamber. Dual fuel system adaptation for farm application ensures self-reliance of the farmer where he can generate Bio-CNG to use the renewable fuel for farming making him less dependent on conventional fossil fuel thus promoting a green economy. The dual-fuel system is adapted to the existing in-use diesel engine with minimum modifications. This makes it feasible to retrofit a CNG fuel system on an existing diesel engine to operate it on dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Heavy Duty CNG Engine Based on Its Aspiration and Fuel System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0117
Engine calibration involves the interaction of electronic components with various engine systems like intake system, exhaust system, ignition system, etc. Emissions are the by-products of combustion of fuel and air inside the combustion chamber. After-treatment systems generally take up the responsibility to scrape out harmful emissions from the engines. However, a good engine calibration will focus on emission reduction at source i.e., during the combustion itself. Thus, the intake of air and fuel in proper amount at each engine operating point is crucial for optimized engine performance and minimal emissions. The Intake system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine and it plays an important role to improve its performance and emission. Generally, for a SI engine, maintaining the stoichiometric A/F ratio is a challenging endeavour from an operational standpoint.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Piston Bowl Geometry for a Low Emission Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2056
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided design optimization was conducted for the piston bowl geometry for a heavy-duty diesel engine. The optimization goal was to minimize engine-out NOx emissions without sacrificing engine peak power and thermal efficiency. The CFD model was validated with experiments and the combustion system optimization was conducted under three selected operating conditions representing low speed, maximum torque, and rated power. A hundred piston bowl shapes were generated, of which 32 shapes with 3 spray angles for each shape were numerically analyzed and one optimized design of piston bowl geometry with spray angle was selected. On average, the optimized combustion system decreased nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 17% and soot emissions by 41% without compromising maximum engine power and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics, Performance and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Ethanol-Diesel Direct Injection Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2077
Diffusive combustion of direct injected ethanol is investigated in a heavy-duty single cylinder engine for a broad range of operating conditions. Ethanol has a high potential as fossil fuel alternative, as it provides a better carbon footprint and has more sustainable production pathways. The introduction of ethanol as fuel for heavy-duty compression-ignition engines can contribute to decarbonize the transport sector within a short time frame. Given the resistance to autoignition of ethanol, the engine is equipped with two injectors mounted in the same combustion chamber, allowing the simultaneous and independent actuation of the main injection of pure ethanol and a pilot injection of diesel as an ignition source. The influence of the dual-fuel injection strategy on ethanol ignition, combustion characteristics, engine performance and NOx emissions is evaluated by varying the start of injection of both fuels and the ethanol-diesel ratio.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methanol Sprays and Mixture Formation in a Compression-Ignition Heavy-Duty Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2109
Methanol is not a fuel typically used in compression ignition engines due to the high resistance to auto-ignition. However, conventional diesel combustion and PPC offer high engine efficiency along with low HC and CO emissions, albeit with the trade-off of increased NOx and PM emissions. This trade-off balance is mitigated in the case of methanol and other alcohol fuels, as they bring oxygen in the combustion chamber. Thus methanol compression ignition holds the potential for a clean and effective alternative fuel proposition. Most existing research on methanol is on SI engines and very little exists in the literature regarding methanol auto-ignition engine concepts. In this study, the spray characteristics of methanol inside the optically accessible cylinder of a DI-HD engine are investigated. The liquid penetration length at various injection timings is documented, ranging from typical PPC range down to conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Delay of Bio-Diesel and Its Blends

2020-09-15
2020-01-2152
In this work, the ignitjion delay of bio-diesel and its blends with diesel at atmospheric pressure and temperature 8500C has been studied. The results are compared to those for diesel oil. Specifically, the suspended fuel droplet is inserted into a hot combustion chamber containing atmospheric air at temperatures which varied from 6250 - 8500C. The fuel droplet is suspended on the fine silica fibre wire of diameter 550 micron. It is mounted on rod and inserted in the hot combustion chamber at atmospheric condition. The ignition of the droplet is observed by optical circuit (optical sensor) and recorded by CRO. The ignition time is determined for calculating ignition delay. The results are plotted on the ignition delay ln(t) - 1/Temperature, K-1 coordinates to obtain the value of Activation Energy, EA. It has been found that the value of Activation Energy, EA is 44.3kJ for bio-diesel and 53.4kJ for diesel.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Piston/Bore Tribology: The Role of Surface Specifications, Ring Pack, and Lubricant

2020-09-15
2020-01-2167
The present study looks into different possibilities for tribological optimization of the piston/bore system in heavy duty diesel engines. Both component rig tests and numerical simulations are used to understand the roles of surface specifications, ring pack, and lubricant in the piston/bore tribology. Run-in dynamics, friction, wear and combustion chamber sealing are considered. The performance of cylinder liners produced using a conventional plateau honing technology and a novel mechanochemical surface finishing process - ANS Triboconditioning® - is compared and the importance of in-design “pairing” of low-viscosity motor oils with the ring pack and the cylinder bore characteristics in order to achieve maximum improvement in fuel economy without sacrificing the endurance highlighted. A special emphasis is made on studying morphological changes in the cylinder bore surface during the honing, run-in and Triboconditioning® processes.
Journal Article

Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Using Naphtha Fuels in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0764
The regulatory requirements to lower both greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants from heavy duty engines are driving new perspectives on the interaction between fuels and engines. Fuels that lower the burden on engine manufacturers to reach these goals may be of particular interest. Naphtha, a fuel with a higher volatility than diesel, but with the ability to be burned under traditional mixing-controlled combustion conditions is one such fuel. The higher volatility promotes fuel-air mixing and when combined with its typically lower aromatic content, leads to reduced soot emissions when compared directly to diesel. Naphtha also has potential to be less energy-intensive at the refinery level, and its use in transportation applications can potentially reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheels basis.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0703
Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Journal Article

Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of Fuel Distribution by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0748
In a previous study, in order to investigate the effect of charge stratification on combustion behavior such as combustion efficiency and combustion phasing which also largely affects the emissions, an experiment was conducted in a heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) metal engine. The engine behavior and emission characteristics were studied in the transition from HCCI mode to PPC mode by varying the start of injection (SOI) timing. To gain more detailed information of the mixing process, in-cylinder laser diagnostic measurements, namely fuel-tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging, were conducted in an optical version of the heavy-duty CI engine mentioned above. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time to perform fuel-tracer PLIF measurements in an optical engine with a close to production bowl in piston combustion chamber, under transition conditions from HCCI to PPC mode.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-1046
Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Journal Article

Direct Injection of Diesel-Butane Blends in a Heavy Duty Engine

2011-12-06
2011-01-2400
Increasing fuel prices keep bringing attention to alternative, cheaper fuels. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been well known for decades as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) passenger cars. More recently, aftermarket LPG systems were also introduced to Heavy Duty transport vehicles. These (port fuel) systems either vaporize the liquid fuel and then mix it with intake air, or inject fuel into the engine's intake ports. While this concept offers significant fuel cost reductions, for aftermarket certification and large-scale OEM use some concerns are present. Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are known to be high because of premixed charge getting trapped into crevices and possibly being blown through during valve-overlap. Apart from the higher emission levels, this also limits fuel efficiency and therefore cost savings.
Journal Article

Computational Optimization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Engine with Ultra Low Compression Ratio

2011-09-11
2011-24-0015
Many studies have demonstrated ability of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are numerous and range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. Both of the aforementioned techniques have relatively short combustion duration that results in very a rapid rate of heat release, and hence very rapid rates of pressure rise. This has been one of the major challenges for premixed, low temperature combustion at mid and high load. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been introduced recently, which is a dual fuel partially premixed combustion concept.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Virtual NOx Sensor Models for Off Road Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0358
NOx and PM are the critical emissions to meet the legislation limits for diesel engines. Often a value for these emissions is needed online for on-board diagnostics, engine control, exhaust aftertreatment control, model-based controller design or model-in-the-loop simulations. Besides the obvious method of measuring these emissions, a sensible alternative is to estimate them with virtual sensors. A lot of literature can be found presenting different modeling approaches for NOx emissions. Some are very close to the physics and the chemical reactions taking place inside the combustion chamber, others are only given by adapting general functions to measurement data. Hence, generally speaking, there is not a certain method which is seen as the solution for modeling emissions. Finding the best model approach is not straightforward and depends on the model application, the available measurement channels and the available data set for calibration.
Journal Article

Analysis of Temperature Swing Thermal Insulation for Performance Improvement of Diesel Engines

2019-01-23
Abstract Insulating combustion chamber surfaces with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provides thermal efficiency improvement when done appropriately. This article reports on insulation heat transfer, engine performance characteristics, and damage modelling of “temperature swing” TBCs. “Temperature swing” insulation refers to the insulation material applied on surfaces of combustion chamber walls that enables selective manipulation of its surface temperature profile over the four strokes of an engine cycle. A combined GT Suite-ANSYS Fluent simulation methodology is developed to investigate the impact of thermal properties and insulation thickness for a variety of TBC materials for its “temperature swing” characteristics. This one-dimensional transient heat conduction analyses and engine cycle simulations are performed using scaled-down thermal properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia.
Journal Article

Homogeneous Charge Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition Strategy to Reduce Regulated Pollutants from Diesel Engines

2019-03-14
Abstract Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a dual fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) strategy which results in a wider operating load range, near-zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher thermal efficiency. One of the major shortcomings in RCCI is a higher unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Unlike conventional combustion, aftertreatment control of HC and CO emissions is difficult to achieve in RCCI owing to lower exhaust gas temperatures. In conventional RCCI, an early direct injection (DI) of low volatile diesel fuel into the premixed gasoline-air mixture in the combustion chamber results in charge stratification and fuel spray wall wetting leading to higher HC and CO emissions. To address this limitation, a homogeneous charge reactivity-controlled compression ignition (HCRCCI) strategy is proposed in the present work, wherein the DI of diesel fuel is eliminated.
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