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Technical Paper

Applying Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing and Weibull Analysis Methods to Improve ABS ECU Reliability

1999-11-15
1999-01-3763
This paper presents, in a case study format, a methodology for combining the methods of Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing, and Weibull Analysis to improve the reliability of an ABS Electronics Control Unit (ECU). While much literature focuses on each method individually, sometimes it's necessary combine all of these methods to achieve product improvement. The paper walks through the steps of using an multi-environment over-stress accelerated test routine, with DOE methods to evaluate key factors, and then applying Weibull and Weibayes methods to validate the new proposal and estimate expect life improvement.
Technical Paper

The New Allison HD4070 Transmission - Design, Development and Applications

1999-11-15
1999-01-3742
Allison Transmission has been a key player in the Military and Heavy Duty Commercial truck markets for many years. These tough vocations require transmissions that are not only capable of heavy loads, rigorous duty cycles, and proven reliability, but also provide value for the end-user and maintain compatibility with leading edge technological improvements of engines and other parts of the vehicle system. The Allison HD4070 transmission is one of the latest transmission offerings from Allison Transmission to meet the “next generation” heavy-duty vehicle needs. This product increases value to the vehicle manufacturer and customer, and provides compatibility with the fast changing electronics capabilities of modern vehicle systems and engines. These improvements are offered in a durable design that has been the trademark of Allison transmissions in these markets.
Technical Paper

Using Modern Technology to Improve Truck Seating

1999-11-15
1999-01-3735
Many advancements have been made through the use of technology that give seat manufacturers the capability to provide greatly improved truck seats. Until recently the design and development of new seating was accomplished primarily through static surveys. Modern technologies available today will reduce cost, development time, and the overall effort associated with utilizing real people to develop a seating project. In many instances when these seats were placed into vehicles with actual truck drivers riding in them for many hours a day, the drivers inputs resulted in multiple revisions to the original seat to satisfy their comfort issues. With modern technologies such as computer generated seat modeling, pressure mapping, and our state of the art test equipment such as a six–axis ride simulator, it has become part of any new seat development program to acquire field ride data in specific trucks and duplicate these inputs in the test laboratory.
Technical Paper

The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks & SUV's - Year 2000 Update

2000-06-19
2000-01-2197
Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppl iers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine.
Technical Paper

PCI Bus in On-Bard Computers of Mobile Agricultural Machines

2000-09-11
2000-01-2623
A perspective design technique of on-board computers for mobile agricultural machines is their creation on the basis of standard modules allowing to reduce the designing period, to improve reliability, quality, and also to make operation and modernization of designed systems cheaper. Because modules are made in different standards, there is a problem of choice of modules for a concrete application. The paper considers various problems of application of a PCI bus in on-board computers of mobile agricultural machines. Recommendations on efficient use of the PCI bus are given.
Technical Paper

On Optimal Longevity of Commercial Vehicles

1981-02-01
810522
The effect of changing economic conditions on quality requirements of commercial vehicles is discussed. Special attention is given to reliability and longevity aspects. To facilitate the evaluation of changes of reliability on total life costs of automobiles, a mathematical model was developed, which contains also seperate variables defining the energy and material content in the life cost structure. The concept of optimal longevity is analysed and factors influencing it are considered. It is shown, that improvements in automobile reliability can lead to considerable savings of energy and material.
Technical Paper

Concepts of Product Support in an International Industrial Equipment Corporation

1981-04-01
810689
Minimizing equipment downtime is a central concern of this conference. Fundamental to this concern is the need to define and measure the elements that significantly influence equipment downtime. The requirement for in-field management information led to the design of the Deere & Company Total Reliability Analysis of Customer Equipment System (T.R.A.C.E.). T.R.A.C.E. measures in a timely and cost effective way, product reliability and life cycle costs, product serviceability, dealer service performance, and provides a means of improving parts service effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Emissions, Efficiency, and Durability of Agricultural Diesel Engines Using Low-Proof Ethanol

1983-09-12
831353
Experimental investigations were made to evaluate the potential of using low-proof ethanol to supplement diesel fuel in agricultural engines. Fumigation, mechanical emulsification, and chemical emulsifiers were used to introduce a significant amount of alcohol with diesel fuel for engine operation. A total of five diesel tractor engines were tested using each of the fuel systems. Exhaust products and fuel usage were determined at various engine speed/load conditions. A 500-hour engine durability test was conducted on three of the engines using 25% 160-proof ethanol with diesel fuel. Two tests were conducted using fumigation, and one test was done with a mechanical fuel emulsifier. Results suggest that approximately 25% alcohol can be used with diesel fuel to realize essentially the same thermal efficiency as diesel fuel. In addition, no adverse effects on engine life expectancy were apparent using 25% 160-proof ethanol fumigated into an engine.
Technical Paper

A Corporate Product Quality Assurance Program

1983-09-12
831351
This paper outlines what a large company is doing on a corporate staff basis to help combat Product Liability problems. Eaton Corporation is multi-national and serves a variety of markets. The extensive and complex line of products dictates the need for a well organized, corporate Product Assurance Program. The program is made up of five thrusts: 1) Corporate Policy, 2) Guidelines, 3) Divisional Committees, 4) Surveys and 5) Training. Utilizing a product development project, the implementation of several elements of Product Quality Assurance are explained. The program was designed for flexibility and emphasizes the chairman's motto to “DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME, EVERY TIME.”
Technical Paper

The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Structure on Adhesive Bonding

1983-09-12
831391
When one wishes to bond aluminum alloys and obtain durable bonds, it has been conventional practice to clean and remove the mill oxide chemically and deposit another oxide surface which then is more receptive to forming a strong adhesive bond. Much work has been done in recent years by the adhesive manufacturers to develop adhesive systems which produce durable bonds to untreated surfaces. Their efforts using reactive acrylic and rubber modified epoxies have been largely successful. The more one knows about the surface to be bonded, the better the possibility of producing a durable bonding system. This paper addresses some of those factors concerning the aluminum oxide surface. A model for the aluminum oxide structure is presented and evidence given that indicates that with 5182 alloy, bond failure can be related to failure of the magnesium oxide within the aluminum oxide structure.
Technical Paper

The Design, Durability and Performance of the Turntable Bearing for a Small Truck Crane

1983-09-12
831369
This paper presents the design of a single row four point angular contact ball bearing with external gear teeth used as a turnable bearing in a small truck crane. In addition Durability and Performance Tests are presented. The durability of induction hardened raceways, comparison of raceway materials, durability under oscillation with one-way loading, measurement of rotating torque and the mechanism of cage failure are some of the factors examined in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of a Durable, Reliable and Fast Responding Solenoid Valve

1983-09-12
831326
A new solenoid operated valve has been developed which is compact, durable, reliable and fast operating. Different versions of the valve have been constructed for operating pressures of 2 bar to 100 bar. The valving mechanism is ball poppet and requires no spring. Additional design features include hardened seats, and close control of valve travel and air gap.
Technical Paper

Development of a Distributed Microcomputer Based Engine Performance Evaluation System

1983-09-12
831321
Computer aided systems for performance evaluation of functional devices for passenger cars, such as engines or transmissions, have been applied for ten years. These systems generally consist of a large main frame computer or minicomputers for conducting a large number of complicated analyses. In the past, these computer aided systems were used for vehicle research and development since they were too expensive and sophisticated for use on the production line. Today, microcomputers with mass memory or personal computers are available at very low cost in comparison to conventional minicomputers. With many distributed microcomputers, we have developed a new test and control system for the engine production line. This system consists of (1) a microcomputer with a disk system for test data storage, (2) five personal computers for the man-machine system and data processing, and (3) microcomputers for real time control and data acquistion.
Technical Paper

Electrohydraulic Dual Power-Shift Control for Agricultural Tractors

1983-09-12
831349
Earlier transmissions were equipped with a complex mechanical linkage for actuating the dual power planetary gear set. Field experience revealed the need for a reliable, simplified and less expensive method for this particular transmission control. An electrohydraulic directional control valve was developed to provide an economical design improvement which was readily incorporated into present models.
Technical Paper

A Service-Life Oriented Method of Rating Tractor Transmissions and Axles

1983-09-12
831305
Several highly technical skills are required to design and develop a self-propelled vehicle. One such skill is to design or select the appropriate size drive train. The more accurately this can be accomplished, the more significant will be the savings in development cost. Various references are available on the theoretical approach; however, a significant unknown is the relationship to practical applications. Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG has over many years of experience developed a computer program that can reliably assess the service life of power train designs. The reliability of this approach has been proven by both vehicle manufacturers and end users.
Technical Paper

An Inexpensive Quality Assurance Friction Dynamometer

1983-09-12
831313
Confirming the coefficient of friction of production clutch plates has heretofore ranged from difficult to prohibitively expensive for many geometries. This paper describes an approach to the problem of “inspecting” coefficient of friction with a minimum of tooling or capital.
Technical Paper

Progress in the Development and Manufacture of Heavy Duty Paper Friction Material

1983-09-12
831314
Original paper friction materials were energy limited and their use confined to light duty vehicles. Recent innovations in paper friction material compositions now permit consideration of this type of friction facing for all wet friction applications. A comparison of the properties of these new materials with those of traditional paper friction compositions, demonstrates the attractive features of the new materials. New friction paper compositions allow the potential user to select desired properties from a wide range of performance characteristics. The installation of an automated paper friction clutch disc production line further enhances the reliability and cost-effectiveness of paper friction materials.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Deere Family of Low-Speed High-Torque Hydraulic Motors

1983-09-12
831273
The John Deere cam lobe motor introduced two years ago has found primary usage as auxiliary drive systems on harvesting machines. The performance and reliability have been well received on John Deere combines and forage harvesters and in some OEM applications. The basic family is now being expanded to provide new features and flexibility for the OEM market. The expansion to include fixed as well as steerable mountings, shiftable operation (1, 2 or 3 speeds), greater axle capacity and an optional brake will be described. The challenge of extending motor capability and flexibility while minimizing total number of family components and maintaining reliability will be addressed.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Pedestrian Simulations

1983-02-01
830060
In this paper four pedestrian models will be presented: three 2-dimensional models with 2, 5 and 7-segments respectively and one 3-dimensional model with 15 segments. All these models were formulated with the general Crash Victim Simulation package MADYMO. Model results will be compared with the experimental results of a Part 572 dummy impacted lateral at two velocities (30 and 40 km/h). The reliability of the models with respect to their complexity will be discussed. Special attention will be given to the mathematical representation of the contact between the pedestrian and sharp vehicle edges and the visualization of the complex 3-dimensional pedestrian motions with a recently developed 3D-Graphics Package.
Technical Paper

Dynamometer Simulation of Truck and Bus Road Horsepower for Transient Emissions Evaluations

1984-02-01
840349
Appropriate chassis dynamometer simulation of road power for truck tractor-trailers and buses were required for emissions evaluations. To establish such simulations, the power required to operate vehicles over a roadway (speed-power relationship) was determined for two truck tractor-trailers and one city bus. Results of these determinations, along with data reported in the literature, were used to determine the power to be absorbed by a chassis dynamometer to simulate On-road driving of trucks and buses. The chassis dynamometer is being used in the subsequent phases of this study involving emissions evaluations of heavy duty vehicles. THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER is to describe the findings associated with road power determination and simulation for heavy-duty trucks and buses. Included is a general discussion of road power, along with the results of evaluations on the road and on the chassis dynamometer.
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