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Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

Steering Performance Evaluation - Heavy-Duty Highway Tractor Wander Test

1999-11-15
1999-01-3764
Heavy-duty highway tractors are the topic of various studies and tests to understand vehicle wander as a contributing factor to driver fatigue. Subtle variations in steering system characteristics can create measurable differences in performance, and operators may have different subjective opinions of the same system. This paper's purpose is to examine wander test setup and data analysis for tests conducted on an International® Model 9200 tractor-trailer at the Navistar Technology and Engineering Center in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Instrumented data and subjective ratings were collected using five power steering gears, evaluated by six drivers, operating over a specific test route.
Technical Paper

Applying Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing and Weibull Analysis Methods to Improve ABS ECU Reliability

1999-11-15
1999-01-3763
This paper presents, in a case study format, a methodology for combining the methods of Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing, and Weibull Analysis to improve the reliability of an ABS Electronics Control Unit (ECU). While much literature focuses on each method individually, sometimes it's necessary combine all of these methods to achieve product improvement. The paper walks through the steps of using an multi-environment over-stress accelerated test routine, with DOE methods to evaluate key factors, and then applying Weibull and Weibayes methods to validate the new proposal and estimate expect life improvement.
Technical Paper

Fast Filling of NGV Fuel Containers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3739
Studies have been published which address fast filling of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) fuel containers. Diggins states that NGV fuel containers cannot be fully filled during a fast fill, and that all-composite fuel containers cannot be filled as full as other types of fuel containers. There are issues in this prior work which may have a significant effect on the author’s conclusions. Fast fill testing conducted by Powertech Labs shows the Lincoln Composites’ fuel container has significantly better fill performance than projected by Diggins. Testing of a dispenser control system by Kountz and Blazek demonstrates all types of fuel containers can be properly filled with proper dispenser control algorithms and performance.
Technical Paper

The New Allison HD4070 Transmission - Design, Development and Applications

1999-11-15
1999-01-3742
Allison Transmission has been a key player in the Military and Heavy Duty Commercial truck markets for many years. These tough vocations require transmissions that are not only capable of heavy loads, rigorous duty cycles, and proven reliability, but also provide value for the end-user and maintain compatibility with leading edge technological improvements of engines and other parts of the vehicle system. The Allison HD4070 transmission is one of the latest transmission offerings from Allison Transmission to meet the “next generation” heavy-duty vehicle needs. This product increases value to the vehicle manufacturer and customer, and provides compatibility with the fast changing electronics capabilities of modern vehicle systems and engines. These improvements are offered in a durable design that has been the trademark of Allison transmissions in these markets.
Technical Paper

Using Modern Technology to Improve Truck Seating

1999-11-15
1999-01-3735
Many advancements have been made through the use of technology that give seat manufacturers the capability to provide greatly improved truck seats. Until recently the design and development of new seating was accomplished primarily through static surveys. Modern technologies available today will reduce cost, development time, and the overall effort associated with utilizing real people to develop a seating project. In many instances when these seats were placed into vehicles with actual truck drivers riding in them for many hours a day, the drivers inputs resulted in multiple revisions to the original seat to satisfy their comfort issues. With modern technologies such as computer generated seat modeling, pressure mapping, and our state of the art test equipment such as a six–axis ride simulator, it has become part of any new seat development program to acquire field ride data in specific trucks and duplicate these inputs in the test laboratory.
Technical Paper

Off-Highway Noise - Diverging Demands of the Future

2000-09-11
2000-01-2548
Recent years has seen the development of increased restrictions on allowable noise output from Earthmoving equipment within the European Union, Australia, and Japan. At the same time, other environmental issues such as engine emissions have been the prime focus of America. With Europe now adopting a similar approach to emissions, earthmoving equipment manufacturers are anticipating the conflict that this brings in terms of machine design. This paper reviews the changes in recent years, illustrates the methods adopted so far to reduce noise, and considers what the future may hold in order to meet both legislative and customer demands.
Technical Paper

The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks & SUV's - Year 2000 Update

2000-06-19
2000-01-2197
Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppl iers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine.
Technical Paper

Pass-by-Noise Development for Trucks Considering Cooling and Airflow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-3849
The work carried out with external noise insulation has been demanding high importance in vehicle concept since the second External Noise Regulation in Brazil (Conama 001/ 1993). The engineering effort shall increase significantly for near future developments due to the new Regulation (Conama 272 / 2000) with more stringent limits. The effect over vehicle systems beyond noise requirements is not restricted to the addition of shields and insulators. The airflow restriction created by the noise shields surfaces may become a huge cooling issue. This situation is usually observed on trucks designed for tropical markets and submitted to severe environments. Lessons learned in a current development are the basis of the proposed methodology. Vehicle and lab sound intensity noise source ranking tests are suggested as development tools. The paper also presents a pass-by-noise development strategy that includes CAE airflow and cooling management tools.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Test Cycle Characteristics on Fuel Consumption and Emissions of City Buses

2001-05-07
2001-01-2002
While engine test procedures are mainly applied to verify and ensure compliance to the various emission standards, vehicle test procedures were developed to simulate the vehicle in actual service (including engine, drive train and chassis). These drive cycles are usually performed on a chassis dynamometer, but can also be performed on test track. The results are expressed in grams of pollutant per unit of distance (g/km). Examples of vehicle test cycles, which are mainly focussed at city buses, are the time-based Central Business District Cycle (CBDC) and the Dutch Urban Bus Driving Cycle (DUBDC) and the distance-based Belgian City Cycle of the public Transport Company “De Lijn”. In the frame of the IEA-AMF project “Real Impact of New Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles”, three state-of-the-art city bus technologies were evaluated for fuel consumption and emissions both in real city traffic and in the mentioned vehicle test cycles.
Technical Paper

Effect on Emissions of Multiple Driving Test Schedules Performed on Two Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2000-10-16
2000-01-2818
Chassis based emissions characterization of heavy-duty vehicles has advanced over the last decade, but the understanding of the effect of test schedule on measured emissions is still poor. However, this is an important issue because the test schedule should closely mimic actual vehicle operation or vocation. A wide variety of test schedules was reviewed and these cycles were classified as cycles or routes and as geometric or realistic. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT), a GMC box truck with a Caterpillar 3116 engine and a Peterbilt over the road tractor-trailer with a Caterpillar 3406 engine were exercised through a large number of cycles and routes. Test weight for the GMC was 9,980 kg and for the Peterbilt was 19,050 kg. Emissions characterization was performed using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, with a full-scale dilution tunnel, analyzers for gaseous emissions, and filters for PM emissions.
Technical Paper

PCI Bus in On-Bard Computers of Mobile Agricultural Machines

2000-09-11
2000-01-2623
A perspective design technique of on-board computers for mobile agricultural machines is their creation on the basis of standard modules allowing to reduce the designing period, to improve reliability, quality, and also to make operation and modernization of designed systems cheaper. Because modules are made in different standards, there is a problem of choice of modules for a concrete application. The paper considers various problems of application of a PCI bus in on-board computers of mobile agricultural machines. Recommendations on efficient use of the PCI bus are given.
Technical Paper

Dynamometer Testing of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Urea-SCR System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0516
As part of a California Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) system demonstration and evaluation project [13], the authors and their industrial partners have conducted engine dynamometer emissions tests of SCR systems. The transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle and 13 Mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC) were conducted using certification diesel fuel with 300-500 ppm of sulfur. This paper reviews the performance of the first system to meet the goal of attaining 1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions in the transient FTP cycle on a 1999 DDC Series 60 engine that has an initial 4 g/bhp-hr level. This paper discusses key characteristics of a typical automotive SCR system and then presents the results and analysis of the engine dynamometer emission testing of a SCR system. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges involved in on-road operation of the system.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Using Acoustic Room Models and Measured Sound Power to Estimate Vehicle Interior Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1533
In this paper, interior noise of a heavy commercial truck was modeled with the room equation. This approach assumed that large truck cabins may be adequately modeled as a practical room as is done in architectural acoustics, where ray theory and statistical concepts are suitable, and where application of complicated wave theory may not be necessary. This simplifies computational requirements, making a semi-empirical scheme useful for timely product development. This study employed sound power measurements at thirty-four surface patches encompassing the interior cabin boundary. Each surface-patch constituted an individual interior noise source. Predicted and measured results correlated well, demonstrating the capability to estimate driver-position noise level from predicted periphery sound intensity changes.
Technical Paper

Front underrun protection systems for trucks. Considerations about the bullet and target vehicles for a test procedure

2001-06-04
2001-06-0108
The present paper describes the activities of the INSIA (University Institute for Automobile Research) for the definition of the test procedure for the validation of a Front Underrun Protection System for trucks. After a review of the activities of the EEVC Working Group 14 in this field, the possible configurations of the test are discussed. This includes a proposal for the definition of the target and bullet vehicles to be used in dynamic tests, and a first approximation to the type of parameters to be measured.
Technical Paper

Development of an Indoor Noise Test Procedure for Trucks

1981-08-01
810856
An alternate, indoor, noise test procedure for truck exterior noise is being developed in order to overcome the weather problems associated with the presently employed outdoor test method. The feasibility of a reverberation room measurement of sound power level has been demonstrated through a series of comparative indoor and outdoor measurements for several vehicles. An indoor test procedure has been broadly defined and an experimental effort is continuing to complete its development and to demonstrate its equivalence to the outdoor passby test.
Technical Paper

On Optimal Longevity of Commercial Vehicles

1981-02-01
810522
The effect of changing economic conditions on quality requirements of commercial vehicles is discussed. Special attention is given to reliability and longevity aspects. To facilitate the evaluation of changes of reliability on total life costs of automobiles, a mathematical model was developed, which contains also seperate variables defining the energy and material content in the life cost structure. The concept of optimal longevity is analysed and factors influencing it are considered. It is shown, that improvements in automobile reliability can lead to considerable savings of energy and material.
Technical Paper

Friction Welding-Its Mechanical Properties

1981-04-01
810692
The mechanical properties of friction welded joints have been determined through tensile, fatigue, photoelastic and residual stress analyses. These properties and the testing methods involved are defined and the results compared to like joints welded with the flux-cored, gas-shielded process.
Technical Paper

Concepts of Product Support in an International Industrial Equipment Corporation

1981-04-01
810689
Minimizing equipment downtime is a central concern of this conference. Fundamental to this concern is the need to define and measure the elements that significantly influence equipment downtime. The requirement for in-field management information led to the design of the Deere & Company Total Reliability Analysis of Customer Equipment System (T.R.A.C.E.). T.R.A.C.E. measures in a timely and cost effective way, product reliability and life cycle costs, product serviceability, dealer service performance, and provides a means of improving parts service effectiveness.
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