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Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

Steering Performance Evaluation - Heavy-Duty Highway Tractor Wander Test

1999-11-15
1999-01-3764
Heavy-duty highway tractors are the topic of various studies and tests to understand vehicle wander as a contributing factor to driver fatigue. Subtle variations in steering system characteristics can create measurable differences in performance, and operators may have different subjective opinions of the same system. This paper's purpose is to examine wander test setup and data analysis for tests conducted on an International® Model 9200 tractor-trailer at the Navistar Technology and Engineering Center in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Instrumented data and subjective ratings were collected using five power steering gears, evaluated by six drivers, operating over a specific test route.
Technical Paper

Fast Filling of NGV Fuel Containers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3739
Studies have been published which address fast filling of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) fuel containers. Diggins states that NGV fuel containers cannot be fully filled during a fast fill, and that all-composite fuel containers cannot be filled as full as other types of fuel containers. There are issues in this prior work which may have a significant effect on the author’s conclusions. Fast fill testing conducted by Powertech Labs shows the Lincoln Composites’ fuel container has significantly better fill performance than projected by Diggins. Testing of a dispenser control system by Kountz and Blazek demonstrates all types of fuel containers can be properly filled with proper dispenser control algorithms and performance.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Test Cycle Characteristics on Fuel Consumption and Emissions of City Buses

2001-05-07
2001-01-2002
While engine test procedures are mainly applied to verify and ensure compliance to the various emission standards, vehicle test procedures were developed to simulate the vehicle in actual service (including engine, drive train and chassis). These drive cycles are usually performed on a chassis dynamometer, but can also be performed on test track. The results are expressed in grams of pollutant per unit of distance (g/km). Examples of vehicle test cycles, which are mainly focussed at city buses, are the time-based Central Business District Cycle (CBDC) and the Dutch Urban Bus Driving Cycle (DUBDC) and the distance-based Belgian City Cycle of the public Transport Company “De Lijn”. In the frame of the IEA-AMF project “Real Impact of New Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles”, three state-of-the-art city bus technologies were evaluated for fuel consumption and emissions both in real city traffic and in the mentioned vehicle test cycles.
Technical Paper

Effect on Emissions of Multiple Driving Test Schedules Performed on Two Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2000-10-16
2000-01-2818
Chassis based emissions characterization of heavy-duty vehicles has advanced over the last decade, but the understanding of the effect of test schedule on measured emissions is still poor. However, this is an important issue because the test schedule should closely mimic actual vehicle operation or vocation. A wide variety of test schedules was reviewed and these cycles were classified as cycles or routes and as geometric or realistic. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT), a GMC box truck with a Caterpillar 3116 engine and a Peterbilt over the road tractor-trailer with a Caterpillar 3406 engine were exercised through a large number of cycles and routes. Test weight for the GMC was 9,980 kg and for the Peterbilt was 19,050 kg. Emissions characterization was performed using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, with a full-scale dilution tunnel, analyzers for gaseous emissions, and filters for PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Dynamometer Testing of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Urea-SCR System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0516
As part of a California Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) system demonstration and evaluation project [13], the authors and their industrial partners have conducted engine dynamometer emissions tests of SCR systems. The transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle and 13 Mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC) were conducted using certification diesel fuel with 300-500 ppm of sulfur. This paper reviews the performance of the first system to meet the goal of attaining 1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions in the transient FTP cycle on a 1999 DDC Series 60 engine that has an initial 4 g/bhp-hr level. This paper discusses key characteristics of a typical automotive SCR system and then presents the results and analysis of the engine dynamometer emission testing of a SCR system. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges involved in on-road operation of the system.
Technical Paper

Front underrun protection systems for trucks. Considerations about the bullet and target vehicles for a test procedure

2001-06-04
2001-06-0108
The present paper describes the activities of the INSIA (University Institute for Automobile Research) for the definition of the test procedure for the validation of a Front Underrun Protection System for trucks. After a review of the activities of the EEVC Working Group 14 in this field, the possible configurations of the test are discussed. This includes a proposal for the definition of the target and bullet vehicles to be used in dynamic tests, and a first approximation to the type of parameters to be measured.
Technical Paper

Development of an Indoor Noise Test Procedure for Trucks

1981-08-01
810856
An alternate, indoor, noise test procedure for truck exterior noise is being developed in order to overcome the weather problems associated with the presently employed outdoor test method. The feasibility of a reverberation room measurement of sound power level has been demonstrated through a series of comparative indoor and outdoor measurements for several vehicles. An indoor test procedure has been broadly defined and an experimental effort is continuing to complete its development and to demonstrate its equivalence to the outdoor passby test.
Technical Paper

Friction Welding-Its Mechanical Properties

1981-04-01
810692
The mechanical properties of friction welded joints have been determined through tensile, fatigue, photoelastic and residual stress analyses. These properties and the testing methods involved are defined and the results compared to like joints welded with the flux-cored, gas-shielded process.
Technical Paper

Dezincification Corrosion and Its Prevention for Copper/Brass Radiators

1983-12-05
831829
The use of a corrosion inhibited arsenical brass alloy for copper/brass radiator tubes has been identified as an effective means to protect the radiator tubes from external dezincification attack, which is generally caused by an exposure to excessive road salts in the regions such as Montreal and Toronto in Canada. Laboratory test methods, their results and field data verifying improved radiator life are presented.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Automotive Conversion Coatings

1983-12-05
831812
Currently many laboratory cycle tests are being used to evaluate the actual corrosion oa automobile bodies. Our objective was to study the major laboratory test procedures being used to determine which, if any, of them is best in correlating to actual corrosion performance observed in automobiles.
Technical Paper

A Three-Chamber Corrosion Test Method for Passenger Cars

1983-12-05
831814
The resistance of passenger cars to corrosion is tested in a three-chamber system, in which the cars are subjected to extreme climatic conditions. A hydropulse installation, a roller dynamometer, blower fans and a ‘gravel gun’ firing stone chippings are used to simulate actual road use. During a 14-week test period, it is possible to obtain corrosion equivalent to that which would have occurred in 6 years of driving in a very corrosive environment.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Contained Air Temperature from SAE Standard Rolling Resistance Test Data

1983-11-07
831796
Truck tire rolling resistance, when determined through the SAE J 1379 test matrix, can be shown to predict cavity air temperature at test equilibrium. Cavity temperatures are determined with the SAE Standard test data, heat transfer relationships, and equations of state. When this method is compared to road test data, the SAE J 1379 test procedure is shown to be more precise, equally accurate, and many times faster to perform than the same test conducted on the road.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Economy Test Procedures

1983-11-07
831784
This paper is a condensation of SAE Special Publication 561 which reports the “Development and Validation of the Joint TMC/SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure Type II - SAE J1321, October 1981, by a Joint Task Force” and the related “Truck Test Program” run at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio in the summer of 1980. A large part of the process of condensing the complete publication consisted of omitting entire sections or reducing them to a few sentences. Some new information has been added.
Technical Paper

SAE/DOT In-Service Validation Test Program

1983-11-07
831785
Fuel efficient components and concepts when incorporated into heavy duty trucking design have been known to improve mpg performance. There has been, however, an inability within the engineering community to universally measure these values. The computer instrumentation of four Class VI straight trucks and four Class VIII tractor/semi-trailers supplied by industry, the operation of these vehicles by the SAE/DOT in revenue service, within volunteer fleets for a year and a half, and additional OEM testing, has completed the validation of test procedures for heavy duty vehicle fuel economy measurement. This testing has also resulted in the accumulation of a large amount of data relating to truck operation all of which can be assessed through the DOT VEHSIM computer prediction program.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Over-the-Road Testing of Truck Aerodynamic Drag Reducing Devices

1982-02-01
821286
The problem of evaluating the fuel savings effectiveness of a truck aerodynamic drag reducing device in an over-the-road test is considered. The sensitivity of a vehicle's fuel consumption rate to factors other than the drag reduction produced by a device is discussed to illustrate potential sources of error. Evaluations of typical performances of several different drag reducing designs demonstrate how effectiveness varies as a function of the design of a device and the short-term and the long-term wind conditions under which it operates. Current SAE over-the-road test procedures are discussed in terms of the correlation between the test result and the probable long-term final savings produced by a device. Results from several fleet experiments are reviewed to illustrate differences in fuel savings results as functions of the drag reduction potential of the vehicle, the design of the device, the test conditions, the test technique employed, and the method of data interpretation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Light Truck Rough Road Durability Procedure Using Fatigue Analysis Methodology

1982-02-01
820693
This paper describes a procedure using fatigue analysis methodology to interpret light truck rough road durability testing in terms of customer usage. The resulting correlation can be used in conjunction with optimization methods to provide a rough road durability procedure that insures adequate durability test objectives while decreasing the degree of over-test. The following procedure can be adopted to any durability test where the relationship between durability test severity and “customer” severity can be quantified. This method may create new durability testing procedures that result in less time and cost while improving durability test accuracy.
Technical Paper

Analytic Process to Develop a Local Truck Driving Cycle

1982-02-01
821256
Driving cycles have been used in Federal Test Procedures to establish fuel economy and emissions characteristics for automobiles. Reasonable driving cycles for trucks and buses have been more difficult to establish because of the great variety of uses which these vehicles experience. The truck cycle has been divided into three different use categories—the local cycle, the short haul cycle, and the highway cycle. Only recently, has actual field data been obtained, and this paper proposes a method of utilizing this data to develop a more realistic local cycle than those previously proposed.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach to lightweight Truck Design

1982-02-01
820989
This paper describes the methods employed to attain very low vehicle tare weight in the development of a new line of high entry tilt cab highway tractors. Design criteria mandated no sacrifice in durability or reliability, and substantial improvements in driver space, ride, noise level and aerodynamic drag as compared to the old model. The methods used to define and organize the Engineering program are covered as well as the design and test methods employed. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the design, use of computer aided engineering such as finite element analysis and life prediction, as well as the use of accelerated testing procedures. Finally, the production vehicle is compared to the targets and to competition at introduction time where it placed lightest weight in its class.
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