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Technical Paper

Applying Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing and Weibull Analysis Methods to Improve ABS ECU Reliability

1999-11-15
1999-01-3763
This paper presents, in a case study format, a methodology for combining the methods of Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing, and Weibull Analysis to improve the reliability of an ABS Electronics Control Unit (ECU). While much literature focuses on each method individually, sometimes it's necessary combine all of these methods to achieve product improvement. The paper walks through the steps of using an multi-environment over-stress accelerated test routine, with DOE methods to evaluate key factors, and then applying Weibull and Weibayes methods to validate the new proposal and estimate expect life improvement.
Technical Paper

The New Allison HD4070 Transmission - Design, Development and Applications

1999-11-15
1999-01-3742
Allison Transmission has been a key player in the Military and Heavy Duty Commercial truck markets for many years. These tough vocations require transmissions that are not only capable of heavy loads, rigorous duty cycles, and proven reliability, but also provide value for the end-user and maintain compatibility with leading edge technological improvements of engines and other parts of the vehicle system. The Allison HD4070 transmission is one of the latest transmission offerings from Allison Transmission to meet the “next generation” heavy-duty vehicle needs. This product increases value to the vehicle manufacturer and customer, and provides compatibility with the fast changing electronics capabilities of modern vehicle systems and engines. These improvements are offered in a durable design that has been the trademark of Allison transmissions in these markets.
Technical Paper

PCI Bus in On-Bard Computers of Mobile Agricultural Machines

2000-09-11
2000-01-2623
A perspective design technique of on-board computers for mobile agricultural machines is their creation on the basis of standard modules allowing to reduce the designing period, to improve reliability, quality, and also to make operation and modernization of designed systems cheaper. Because modules are made in different standards, there is a problem of choice of modules for a concrete application. The paper considers various problems of application of a PCI bus in on-board computers of mobile agricultural machines. Recommendations on efficient use of the PCI bus are given.
Technical Paper

On Optimal Longevity of Commercial Vehicles

1981-02-01
810522
The effect of changing economic conditions on quality requirements of commercial vehicles is discussed. Special attention is given to reliability and longevity aspects. To facilitate the evaluation of changes of reliability on total life costs of automobiles, a mathematical model was developed, which contains also seperate variables defining the energy and material content in the life cost structure. The concept of optimal longevity is analysed and factors influencing it are considered. It is shown, that improvements in automobile reliability can lead to considerable savings of energy and material.
Technical Paper

Concepts of Product Support in an International Industrial Equipment Corporation

1981-04-01
810689
Minimizing equipment downtime is a central concern of this conference. Fundamental to this concern is the need to define and measure the elements that significantly influence equipment downtime. The requirement for in-field management information led to the design of the Deere & Company Total Reliability Analysis of Customer Equipment System (T.R.A.C.E.). T.R.A.C.E. measures in a timely and cost effective way, product reliability and life cycle costs, product serviceability, dealer service performance, and provides a means of improving parts service effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Development of a Durable, Reliable and Fast Responding Solenoid Valve

1983-09-12
831326
A new solenoid operated valve has been developed which is compact, durable, reliable and fast operating. Different versions of the valve have been constructed for operating pressures of 2 bar to 100 bar. The valving mechanism is ball poppet and requires no spring. Additional design features include hardened seats, and close control of valve travel and air gap.
Technical Paper

Electrohydraulic Dual Power-Shift Control for Agricultural Tractors

1983-09-12
831349
Earlier transmissions were equipped with a complex mechanical linkage for actuating the dual power planetary gear set. Field experience revealed the need for a reliable, simplified and less expensive method for this particular transmission control. An electrohydraulic directional control valve was developed to provide an economical design improvement which was readily incorporated into present models.
Technical Paper

A Service-Life Oriented Method of Rating Tractor Transmissions and Axles

1983-09-12
831305
Several highly technical skills are required to design and develop a self-propelled vehicle. One such skill is to design or select the appropriate size drive train. The more accurately this can be accomplished, the more significant will be the savings in development cost. Various references are available on the theoretical approach; however, a significant unknown is the relationship to practical applications. Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG has over many years of experience developed a computer program that can reliably assess the service life of power train designs. The reliability of this approach has been proven by both vehicle manufacturers and end users.
Technical Paper

Progress in the Development and Manufacture of Heavy Duty Paper Friction Material

1983-09-12
831314
Original paper friction materials were energy limited and their use confined to light duty vehicles. Recent innovations in paper friction material compositions now permit consideration of this type of friction facing for all wet friction applications. A comparison of the properties of these new materials with those of traditional paper friction compositions, demonstrates the attractive features of the new materials. New friction paper compositions allow the potential user to select desired properties from a wide range of performance characteristics. The installation of an automated paper friction clutch disc production line further enhances the reliability and cost-effectiveness of paper friction materials.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Deere Family of Low-Speed High-Torque Hydraulic Motors

1983-09-12
831273
The John Deere cam lobe motor introduced two years ago has found primary usage as auxiliary drive systems on harvesting machines. The performance and reliability have been well received on John Deere combines and forage harvesters and in some OEM applications. The basic family is now being expanded to provide new features and flexibility for the OEM market. The expansion to include fixed as well as steerable mountings, shiftable operation (1, 2 or 3 speeds), greater axle capacity and an optional brake will be described. The challenge of extending motor capability and flexibility while minimizing total number of family components and maintaining reliability will be addressed.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Pedestrian Simulations

1983-02-01
830060
In this paper four pedestrian models will be presented: three 2-dimensional models with 2, 5 and 7-segments respectively and one 3-dimensional model with 15 segments. All these models were formulated with the general Crash Victim Simulation package MADYMO. Model results will be compared with the experimental results of a Part 572 dummy impacted lateral at two velocities (30 and 40 km/h). The reliability of the models with respect to their complexity will be discussed. Special attention will be given to the mathematical representation of the contact between the pedestrian and sharp vehicle edges and the visualization of the complex 3-dimensional pedestrian motions with a recently developed 3D-Graphics Package.
Technical Paper

Development of Hino Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1984-02-01
840015
A historical review of Japanese turbocharged diesel engines for heavy duty vehicles is described, and newly developed turbocharged diesel engines of HINO are introduced. The design features of these engines include new turbocharging technologies such as highly backward curved impeller for compressor blade, variable controlled inertia charging and waste gate. Laboratory and field test results demonstrated better fuel economy and improved low speed and transient torque characteristics than the predecessors. Several operational experiences, technical analysis and reliability problems are discussed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Various Material Factors of One Percent Chromium Carburizing Steel Upon Rolling Contact Fatigue Life

1982-02-01
820633
Chromium and chromium-molybdenum carburizing steels are widely used for small- and medium- sized rolling bearings or gears, in Japan. Using a cylinder-to-ball type rolling contact fatigue rig, influence of various material factors such as chemical compositions, oxygen content, retained austenite and grain size in 1 % chromium carburizing steel was investigated. Life level of 1 % chromium steel has been increased gradually since 1968 when the test began. The increase in life level is mainly due to reduction in oxygen content by the improvement of steel-making technique. Manganese content increases the life and 1 % Cr steel with 1 % Mn has high reliable life. Prior austenite grain size does not seem to influence the rolling contact fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Mobile Hydraulics - The logical Progression

1982-02-01
820629
The introduction of microcomputer technology into the industrial and consumer marketplaces has contributed to a significant growth in product efficiency, utility, reliability, and performance. Combining the intelligence of the microcomputer with the muscle of hydraulics has now greatly enhanced the creativeness of mobile equipment design. Significant strides have already been made with hydraulic excavator applications. Additional excavator advancements are in progress with a number of lattice boom and hydraulic crane developments soon to be accomplished. These current and proposed applications provide the basis for the topic of discussion.
Technical Paper

Measuring Reliability

1982-02-01
820637
Reliability is an important performance parameter often referred to subjectively in terms such as “high reliability” but seldom measured or verified. This results from one or both of the following reasons: ○ Measurement of reliability occurs over a long time span. Measuring reliability in the user environment can require months or years of operating history; whereas, acceleration, turning radius, and other performance parameters can be measured with a short term controlled experiment. Without immediate results, diligence in data monitoring often deteriorates until data value is questionable. ○ There is a false notion that complex statistical techniques are necessary to make useable estimates of reliability levels and patterns. A process is proposed in this paper whereby users, distributors, or manufacturers can quantitatively measure reliability in the user environment.
Technical Paper

Advance In Cranking Motors - A New Design Concept

1982-02-01
821272
This paper reviews probably the world's most advanced truck cranking motors in production today. Their design has taken many years to develop and reach the high technical performance and reliability they now achieve. Designed to meet the most arduous conditions and including many novel features to be proof against every conceivable malfunction, they are very compact and robust. A unit weighing 20 Kg and 130mm diameter by 333mm long from the flange cranks engines up to 15 litres, and a unit weighing 31 Kg and 152mm diameter by 426mm long from the flange cranks engines up to 25 litres under extreme climatic conditions.
Technical Paper

Pressure Transducers for Off-Road and Heavy Duty Vehicles

1982-02-01
821076
A new integrated circuit transducer has been developed for engine oil pressure control in off-road and heavy duty vehicles. The design and development was directed at optimizing cost vs. performance trade-offs. Both, system and component level considerations have been incorporated to achieve the objective. Total error of less than 2% of full scale has been accomplished with possible further improvement using system options. Of particular interest is the structural design that meets environmental reliability and which can be extended for pressure control applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems in off-road and heavy duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Use of Solid-State Flashers in Heavy-duty Signaling Applications

2000-12-04
2000-01-3494
Nearly every area of vehicle electronics is experiencing a design and implementation revolution. Drive-by-wire concepts, controller area networks, and “on-line” information systems are rapidly changing the way we view vehicle electronics. Advancements in technology enable improvements or even revolutionary changes in the way products are designed. Enhancements in semiconductor technology are enabling an evolutionary change in the design of products for all types of vehicles. Electrical systems are supporting the movement towards higher voltages, more features, and more power. Today, heavy duty signaling applications may have as many as 20 bulbs connected to the flasher, forcing designers to look towards higher reliability, solid state switching methods.
Technical Paper

Improved Reliability Brake Pneumatic Drive

2000-09-11
2000-01-2639
The main requirements to which the brake system of a vehicle should respond are provision of the standard operation speed and protection features of the control pneumatic drive in case of a malfunction of any of its elements. The article describes a design of modified pneumatic brake drive having improved protection properties in case of damage of a diaphragm of any brake chambers, and methodology of parameter optimization of such drive allowing to create a layout of drive assemblies with the necessary operation speed for MAZ truck-based road trains.
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