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Book

Proceedings for the Joint Conference: MFPT 2013 and ISA's 59th International Instrumentation Symposium

2013-05-13
The result of a combined effort between the Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology (MFPT) and the International Society of Automation (ISA), which held their conferences together in May, 2013, the proceedings are now are available in print format. Focusing on the theme of Sensors and Systems for Reliability, Safety and Affordability, the Joint Conference MFPT 2013 and ISA’s 59th International Instrumentation Symposium reflected the importance of sensing and condition management systems in lowering sustainment costs. The proceedings contain 33 technical papers chosen out of the 120 presented during the various sessions.
Book

Everything Works Wonderfully

2014-07-01
EVERYTHING WORKS WONDERFULLY is a 250-page A4 softback book written to provide a structured source of guidance and reference information on Servitization and the management of physical assets for people at all levels in industry: • Senior executives considering the expansion of their businesses into the provision of Asset Management services for the products they design and manufacture; • Middle management wishing to know what needs to be done to look after the assets they are responsible for and who to approach for help; • ‘Hands-on’ engineers looking for contacts and advice on detailed tools and techniques. • Academics may also find the book useful as a source of contacts and ideas for research.
Book

Technology for Magnesium Castings

2011-01-01
The latest casting and processing technologies have raised the importance of magnesium in the transportation industry. As a structural material with low density and a very high strength-to-weight ratio, magnesium can reduce vehicle weight and, in turn, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel economy. This book provides valuable information on: • melt control • process control • casting and solidification • heat treatment • materials selection • various casting processes The 18 chapter authors are world-class scientists, professors and engineers with countless years of industrial and laboratory experience. Each chapter was also reviewed by qualified metallurgists/materials engineers from the metalcasting industry, academia and research laboratories to ensure that only the highest quality information was accepted for publication.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

System Integration and Analysis in a Virtual Prototype Environment

1999-11-15
1999-01-3712
The design and analysis of vehicle wire harnesses presents a daunting challenge to the modern day transportation industry. The continual increase in on-board vehicle electronics, driven by both consumer and legislative demands, is causing an exponential increase in wire harness complexity. To meet these challenges, software tools have been developed to assist harness designer the various tasks from system partitioning to signal integrity analysis. This paper will explore how the SaberHarness™ tool suite can be used as a virtual prototype environment for a complete system design and analysis including wire harness interconnectivity.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

Verification of Heavy Truck EBS and ABS Using MatrixX Hardware in the Loop Tools

1999-11-15
1999-01-3713
The development of advanced ABS, EBS, and vehicle dynamics control systems requires significant resources and testing. Even in the most controlled environment, on-track vehicle tests are not repeatable. A heavy vehicle model combined with pneumatic brake hardware connected to actual brake system controllers creates a powerful engineering tool. This tool is useful for control system development, electro-mechanical actuator development, and brake system development. An existing heavy vehicle model is modified to interact with the realtime simulation hardware and the pneumatic brake system hardware. Data from several hardware in the loop simulations are presented.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Approach with Graphical User Interface for Simulating Truck Dynamics

1999-11-15
1999-01-3705
The use of computer simulation of vehicle dynamics as a development tool has come into its own over the past few decades. “Simulated” testing on a computer makes possible a degree of control and repeatability that allows the automotive engineer to determine the influence of design variables on different aspects of dynamic performance in ways that would be difficult or impossible by experimental methods. One of the software tools receiving wide acceptance for simulating trucks and combination vehicles is Truck-Sim™. The attraction of this program arises in part from its foundation of truck modeling methods developed at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute over the past two decades, and the use of an advanced graphical user interface to make the software both easy to understand and easy to use by design and development engineers.
Technical Paper

TruCharge™ An Advanced System for Supporting Vehicle Batteries and Eliminating Unscheduled Battery Maintenance

1999-11-15
1999-01-3748
There has been minimal innovation in the area of battery test and diagnostic support over the past 20 years. Battery testing has been limited to measurement of terminal voltage, electrolyte specific gravity measurements and load testing. This paper describes an innovative and newly developed battery analyzer/charger unit. The AlliedSignal TruCharge unit is capable of providing accurate state-of-charge (SOC), capacity as well as providing battery defect data via an automated test sequence that takes less than 20 seconds. It charges the battery quickly while minimizing the generation of hazardous hydrogen gas. The underlying technology is described along with the performance features and specifications of the unit. The unit is also capable of recovering sulfated lead acid batteries. The economic and environmental benefits of battery recovery are discussed. This unit is developed based upon extensive market analysis.
Technical Paper

Managing the Merger of Computer and Truck Electronics

1999-11-15
1999-01-3753
Trucks are becoming home to more and more on-board-computers (OBCs). One key to managing the influx of new technology is to expand the truck’s current network architecture. Another key is to integrate features into a high performance, expandable truck oriented computer. Many new technologies will be reviewed, including USB, MOST, IEEE 1394, Bluetooth, IDB-M, speech recognition and a comparison of optical or copper networking. This session will discuss issues in selecting suitable network topologies, computing architectures, methods of technology integration, and the migration of new computer and communications technology to the truck environment.
Technical Paper

High-Level In-Vehicle Decision Support

1999-11-15
1999-01-3752
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Multilink Independent Front Suspension for Class A Motor Homes

1999-11-15
1999-01-3731
Motorized recreational vehicles with front axle load ratings that exceed 4,086 kilograms, or 9,000 pounds, are traditionally equipped with rigid I-beam type axles. These axles are used in this application because of their ability to carry high axle loads at a reasonable cost, and their durability history in truck usage. Recently, several manufacturers have used independent type front suspension designs. A multi-link type suspension offers some unique solutions in optimizing the front suspension design. This paper describes the performance goals (i.e. Suspension Design Factors) and tradeoffs in pursuit of the final design. Establishing these SDF’s, achieving them and their relationship to vehicle performance are the focus of this paper. Plots of the kinematic and elastic characteristics are included to illustrate some of the unique features of this multi-link suspension.
Technical Paper

The Aluminum Radiator for Heavy Duty Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3721
The Aluminum radiator has a number of features that make it very attractive for vehicle applications in general. Superior durability and reliability in conjunction with its excellent specific values for costs, performance and weight warrant a favorable solution for Heavy Duty Trucks. Behr has been supplying Aluminum radiators for trucks in Europe for over 10 years and in North America for 4 years. This paper examines the results based on this long-term experience. It reviews the field experience compared to Copper/Brass radiators, examines design and mounting features as well as the manufacturing processes. Durability, external and internal corrosion resistance are emphasized as essential characteristics. A special focus is the thermodynamics of Aluminum radiators. The paper reviews methods to simulate the thermodynamic behavior of radiators and the progress in the specific performance, based on the development of improved radiator core matrices.
Technical Paper

Cooling System Cleaning through the use of a Chelating Cleaner Filter

1999-11-15
1999-01-3720
A new method of cleaning cooling systems has been developed that uses a filter with a chelating alkaline cleaner that is released into the cooling system. The cleaner filter is installed in place of the inhibitor filter on heavy-duty engines and left in place for one service cycle. After the service cycle, the cleaner filter is removed, the coolant tested, and the inhibitor filter is reinstalled. This represents a major change in the method traditionally used for cooling system cleaning.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps Used in City-Buses in Switzerland

2000-06-19
2000-01-1927
1 Switzerland is enforcing the use of particulate traps for offroad applications like construction as well as for occupational health applications like tunneling. This decision is based on the results of the VERT-project (1994-1999), which included basic aerosol research, bench screening and field testing of promising solutions as well as the development of implementation tools like trap specification, certification scheems and field control measures. On the other hand there is no corresponding regulation for city-buses yet although PM 10 is about 2× above limit in most Swiss cities. Public pressure however is growing and city transport authorities have reacted by retrofitting Diesel city-buses instead of waiting for cleaner engine technology or CNG-conversions. The favored trap system with about 200 retrofits so far is the CRT.
Technical Paper

Validation of DyMESH for Vehicle vs Barrier Collisions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0844
A new three-dimensional collision simulation algorithm, called DyMESH (Dynamic MEchanical SHell) was recently introduced.[1]* This paper presents a validation of DyMESH for vehicle vs. barrier collisions. The derivation of the three-dimensional force vs. crush relationship was described previously.[1] Here the application of three-dimensional force vs. crush curves using the outlined methodology is shown to be effective. Nonlinear force versus crush relationships are introduced for use in DyMESH. Included are numerous DyMESH collision simulations of several types of vehicles (e.g., light and heavy passenger car and sport utility) compared directly with experimental collision test results from various types of barrier tests (e.g., full frontal, angled frontal, and offset frontal). The focus here is not on the vehicle’s change in velocity, but on the acceleration vs. time history.
Technical Paper

Environmental Standards for Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids and Correlation of Laboratory and Field Performance

2000-09-11
2000-01-2543
Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Lines of Code

2000-09-11
2000-01-2571
The objective of this paper is to delineate the importance of pictures, i.e., graphical models, in documenting and communicating the high level functionality of a complex system, primarily for embedded software requirements and specifications. An overview is given of various graphical techniques and methodologies for modeling complex systems. The aspects (advantages and disadvantages) relating to different categories of modeling are outlined. Discussion of complex systems extends beyond the functional/software aspects of product design to both process and project modeling. The author shares personal observations and experiences with modeling, and tools used.
Technical Paper

Off-Highway Noise - Diverging Demands of the Future

2000-09-11
2000-01-2548
Recent years has seen the development of increased restrictions on allowable noise output from Earthmoving equipment within the European Union, Australia, and Japan. At the same time, other environmental issues such as engine emissions have been the prime focus of America. With Europe now adopting a similar approach to emissions, earthmoving equipment manufacturers are anticipating the conflict that this brings in terms of machine design. This paper reviews the changes in recent years, illustrates the methods adopted so far to reduce noise, and considers what the future may hold in order to meet both legislative and customer demands.
Technical Paper

Anhydrous Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluids

2000-09-11
2000-01-2557
There is an ongoing interest in identifying new biodegradable hydraulic fluid compositions that may be used as alternatives to mineral oil in many hydraulic applications such as mobile off-highway equipment. To date, many basestocks have been proposed including: vegetable oils, polyol esters, diesters, synthetic hydrocarbons and others. One basestock is gaining interest as alternative, biodegradable, fire-resistant hydraulic fluid; anhydrous poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) fluids. However, the use of these fluids is not new; they are simply being rediscovered. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the discovery and development of anhydrous PAGs as hydraulic fluids. This discussion will include: an overview of PAG chemistry, properties and hydraulic pump performance.
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