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Development of DPF/SCR System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-15
The development of PM and NOx reduction system with the combination of DOC included DPF and SCR catalyst in addition to the AOC sub-assembly for NH3 slip protection is described. DPF regeneration strategy and manual regeneration functionality are introduced with using ITH, HCI device on the EUI based EGR, VGT 12.3L diesel engine at the CVS full dilution tunnel test bench. With this system, PM and NOx emission regulation for JPNL was satisfied and DPF regeneration process under steady state condition and transient condition (JE05 mode) were successfully fulfilled. Manual regeneration process was also confirmed and HCI control strategy was validated against the heat loss during transient regeneration mode. Presenter Seung-il Moon
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Commercial Vehicles Fuelled with Biodiesel

2010-10-25
2010-01-2276
The application of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO₂ emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. In Japan, neat biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil has often been applied to commercial vehicles. However, it is possible that the difference of fuel properties between conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel causes the problems on exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel fuelling on exhaust emissions from commercial vehicles. Light-duty garbage trucks and heavy-duty diesel buses which were actually fueled with biodiesel in Kyoto, Japan, were used for test vehicles in this study. The exhaust emissions from these vehicles during JE05 mode tests were compared between biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Cu- and Fe-Based SCR Emission Control Systems for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1329
Since early 2010, most new medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the US rely on urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for meeting the most stringent regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the world today. Catalyst technologies of choice include Copper (Cu)- and Iron (Fe)-based SCR. In this work, the performances of Fe-SCR and Cu-SCR were investigated in the most commonly used DOC + CSF + SCR system configuration. Cu-SCR offered advantages over Fe-SCR in terms of low temperature conversion, NO₂:NOx ratio tolerance and NH₃ slip, while Fe-SCR demonstrated superior performance under optimized NO₂:NOx ratio and at higher temperatures. The Cu-SCR catalyst displayed less tolerance to sulfur (S) exposure. Reactor testing has shown that Cu-SCR catalysts deactivate at low temperature when poisoned by sulfur.
Technical Paper

High Performance NH3 SCR Zeolite Catalysts for Treatment of NOx in Emissions from Off-Road Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1330
The leading approach for reduction of NOx from diesel engines is selective catalytic reduction employing urea as a reductant (NH₃- or urea-SCR). For passenger vehicles, the best known NH₃-SCR catalysts are Cu-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 and have been shown to function very well in a narrow temperature range. This technology is not directly transferable to off-road diesel engines which operate under a different duty cycle resulting in exhaust with different fractions of components than are present in passenger vehicle emissions. Our results show that Cu-ZSM-5 exhibits 90% NOx reduction efficiency in 250-450°C range while Fe-ZSM-5 is highly effective in 350-550°C range for off-road engines. However, a combination of these catalysts cannot efficiently reduce NOx in 150-650°C which is the desirable range for deployment in off-road diesel engines. In our efforts to increase the effective range of these catalysts, we initiated efforts to modify these catalysts by catalyst promoters.
Journal Article

Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1312
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2010 Heavy-Duty systems include a DOC along with a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, to enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging. In this work, a system consisting of SCR-DPF was evaluated in comparison to the DOC + CSF components from a commercial 2010 DOC + CSF + SCR system on an engine with the engine EGR on (standard engine-out NOx) and off (high engine-out NOx).
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1140
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oil Aging on Laboratory Measurement of Emissions from a Legacy Heavy-duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1163
Diesel engines are highly reliable, durable and are used for a wide range of applications with low fuel usage owing to its higher thermal efficiency compared to other mobile power sources. Heavy-duty diesel engines are used for both on-road and off-road applications and dominate the heavy-duty engine segment of the United States transportation market. Due to their high reliability, there are considerable numbers of on-road legacy heavy-duty diesel engine fleets still in use in the United States. These engines are relatively higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) producers than post 2007 model year diesel engines. There have been various emission certification or verification programs which are carried out in states like California and Texas for different aftermarket retrofit devices, fuels and additive technologies for reducing NOx and PM emissions from these legacy diesel engines.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Processes Upstream of the Catalyst for Urea SCR NOx Reduction Systems in Heavy-Duty Diesel Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1322
This project is one component of a broader effort whose ultimate goal is to provide CFD-based tools that can be used to optimize the design of urea SCR NOx aftertreatment systems for heavy-duty diesel engines. Here the focus is on predicting the distributions of key chemical species (ammonia, in particular) at the inlet to the catalysts. Two aspects of the physical models have been emphasized: the multi-phase models, and the gas-phase chemistry models. A hierarchy of four simplified geometric configurations has been used for model development and parametric studies, and to establish the appropriate level of physical modeling and numerical fidelity required. The resulting physical and numerical parameters then have been used to model a production SCR system. Initial quantitative comparisons with experimental measurements are encouraging.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Three-Stage Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0374
An exhaust turbocharging system makes it possible to increase the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and lower emissions levels for a diesel engine while further improving the thermal efficiency. However, in order to meet future emission regulations, further reductions in NOx and particle matter (PM) emissions are necessary. In addition, the diesel engine should have further reductions in fuel consumption to reduce CO₂, which is one of the main greenhouse gases. Authors participated in a program for the comprehensive technological development of innovative, next-generation, low-pollution vehicles with the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) from 2004 through 2008 in cooperation with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). A low-emission and high-efficiency diesel engine system was developed to meet the target of NEDO project.
Technical Paper

Effective BSFC and NOx Reduction on Super Clean Diesel of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by High Boosting and High EGR Rate

2011-04-12
2011-01-0369
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Technical Paper

Development of a Thermal Enhancer™ for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing on Medium and Heavy Duty Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0298
A Thermal Enhancer™ has been developed. Primarily, this device functions to increase exhaust gas temperatures to ensure appropriate catalytic heating as an enabler for diesel particulate filter regeneration and nitrogen oxide reduction technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction. In addition, this system also gives capability for hydrocarbon dosing as an efficient means for full active regeneration of a diesel particulate filter. An overview of this system and its functional applications will be given. Focus will be directed toward the design and test methodology that was adopted to develop a combustor. Results obtained from steady-state, stationary and transient engine dynamometer tests will illustrate the performance benefits and emissions control capabilities of this system.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0310
To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

New Challenges and Technologies for the Emissions Monitoring System (OBD) in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines to Meet the Requirements of the PROCONVE P7

2012-10-02
2012-36-0245
Due to the independent operation between the aftertreatment systems and the engine, the aim of the On Board Diagnostic System (OBD) is to ensure the engine emissions stay within the emissions standards during the whole vehicle useful life. In the case of the heavy duty diesel vehicles that use the Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR) or the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR) as the NOx aftertreatment technologies to meet the stringent emissions levels, the use of sensors in the exhaust pipe is required to control and to monitor the engine emissions. These are new and great challenges to the national diesel engine developers who are working with these systems to get the homologation certification. Accurate mathematic models within the automotive control strategies are becoming ever more important and are strongly used to monitor the NOx emissions directly (in case of SCR systems using the NOx sensor) or indirectly (in case of EGR systems using the Lambda sensor).
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Use in Transit Fleets - A Summary of Brazilian Experiences

2012-10-02
2012-36-0149
Environmental concerns related to intensive fossil fuel use have pursued the development of programs to promote the production and use of renewable fuels. This is specially true for diesel fuel used in transit bus fleets, in which the intensive and concentrated use in densely populated areas generates adverse environmental effects in cities all over the world. Although improvements in fossil fuel quality have been achieved in the last decades, most have to be done to make breath cleaner in world metropolis. One of the most promising options, known as Biodiesel, is an ester produced from vegetable oil or animal fat, in a chemical reaction with methanol or ethanol, through a process known as transesterification. It contains, on average, 8% and 12.5% less energy than diesel fuel in a volume and in a weight basis, respectively, which affects engine power, in accordance with the blend used.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop Performance of SCR System for Commercial Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1586
The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission standard has become more stringent in the past decade due to the critical global air pollution. In order to reduce the amount of NOx generated from automobiles, improving the performance of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems which can reduce NOx emissions becomes an important topic in the automotive industry. Due to the large gas flow rate in commercial vehicles, the packaging constraints and the sizes of SCR catalysts in the market, the SCR systems installed in the commercial vehicles consist of a number of SCR catalysts, either in parallel or in series, and connected by pipes and chambers. There are three major factors which can improve the performance of a SCR system - creating even gas flow rate, uniform speed through the catalysts, and lower total pressure loss. The first two can help operate the SCR catalyst efficiently and even life cycle, at the same time the lower total pressure loss can improve the performance of the engine system.
Technical Paper

How to Improve Light Duty Diesel Based on Heavy Duty Diesel Thermodynamic Analysis?

2013-04-08
2013-01-1623
The Diesel engine has now become a vital component of the transport sector, in view of its performance in terms of efficiency and therefore CO2 emissions some 25 % less than a traditional gasoline engine, its main competitor. However, the introduction of more and more stringent regulations on engine emissions (NOx, PM) requires complex after-treatment systems and combustion strategies to decrease pollutant emissions (regeneration strategies, injection strategies, …) with some penalty in fuel consumption. It becomes necessary to find new ways to improve the Diesel efficiency in order to maintain its inherent advantage. In the present work, we are looking for strategies and technologies to reduce Diesel engine fuel consumption. Based on the observation that large Diesel engines have a better efficiency than the smaller ones, a detailed thermodynamic combustion analysis of one Heavy Duty (HD) engine and two Passenger car (PC) engines is performed to understand these differences.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Emission Model for the Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application Using Combustion Characteristic Parameters

2013-04-08
2013-01-0532
Tighter emission norms and fuel economy demands have prompted diesel engine manufacturers to implement Aftertreatment systems for both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel applications. After implementing Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology to comply with 2007 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulations, OEMs have turned their attention towards NOx reductions with SCR technology. Current SCR technologies include liquid based Urea injection into the exhaust stream for NOx reductions and Solid Ammonia Storage and Delivery System (ASDS) which involves dosing gaseous Ammonia. Irrespective of the technology in use, the estimation of engine-out NOx emissions plays a vital role in reductant (Urea/Ammonia) dosing estimation via feed-back controls. The general method for determination of the engine-out NOx emissions is to use commonly available NOx emission sensors (NOx Sensors). However, NOx sensors have their own drawbacks.
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