Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, also known as 3D printing, has transitioned from concepts and prototypes to part-for-part substitution and the creation of unique AM-specific part geometries. These applications are increasingly present in demanding, mission-critical fields such as medicine and aerospace, which require materials with certain thermal, stiffness, corrosion, and static loading properties. To advance in these arenas, metallic, ceramic, and polymer composite AM parts need to be free from discontinuities. The manufacturing processes have to be stable, robust, and repeatable. And the nondestructive testing (NDT) technology and inspection methods will need to be sufficiently capable and reliable to ensure that discontinuities will be detected to prevent the components from being accepted for use. As the second installment of a six-part series of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports on AM, this one discusses the need, challenges, technologies, and opportunities for NDT in AM.
To improve the biofidelity of the currently available Hybrid III 10-year-old (HIII-10C) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. The LODC head is a redesigned HIII-10C head with mass properties and modified skin material required to match pediatric biomechanical impact response targets from the literature. A dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) model of the LODC head has been developed using the mesh generating tool Hypermesh based on the three-dimensional CAD model. The material data, contact definitions, and initial conditions are defined in LS-PrePost and converted to LS-Dyna solver input format. The aluminum head skull is stiff relative to head flesh material and was thus modeled as a rigid material. For the actual LODC, the head flesh is form fit onto the skull and held in place through contact friction.