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Fiber Optic Strain Sensor Standardization - International and European Activities

There are worldwide activities in developing guidelines and standards for fiber optic sensors. Fiber optic sensors (FOS) are increasingly demanded for structural health monitoring purposes and for measurement of physical and chemical quantities because of their specific features. However, they are not yet widely established for practical use due to a lack of guidelines and confirmed standards. Therefore, there are few groups worldwide which are very active in developing standards for use of FOS in different fields, particularly driven from aircraft industry, oil industry or the necessity to provide sensor systems for health monitoring of structures with a certain level of risk. The benefits of guidelines and/or standards on the way to well-validated and well-specified sensor systems will be presented by means of related examples. The presentation will also give an overview on the state-of-the-art and most relevant activities. Results achieved are discussed.

Validating Time Triggered Ethernet on a Space Vehicle

This presentation provides a overview of validating Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) for use as the network to interconnect the avionics for manned Space Vehicle. The next manned Space Vehicle will use Time Triggered-Gigabit Ethernet (TT-GbE) leveraged from commercial development of TTE critical Intellectual Property. There are several validation considerations of either separating TTE segments or adding new TTE segments onto the network caused by the different phases of a manned space vehicle from pre-launch to re-entry. Considerable amount of validation testing has been successfully performed on TT-GbE/TTE. Presenter Victor Revelle, Honeywell International Inc.

Eurocae WG-72 Activities

The presentation provides an overview about the activities of Eurocae Working Group 72 (WG-72) starting with a brief synopsis of the context which suggested why such a committee should be established in 2006. It then goes into further detail about the drivers for the work of the committee, which call for the products to be delivered. It addresses some of the challenges with respect to its users. It points out that one of the lessons the committee learned was importance of the focus on the users, such that the products provide their maximum utility. Hence, the users should better be among the participants to achieve this objective. Other industries have dealt with the subject of Information System (or Cyber-Physical) Security long before this industry was forced to consider it. Consequently there are many industry standards and national or international norms, which may help to develop what is deemed needed for Civil Aviation.
Technical Paper

Airplane Vibrations and Flutter Controllable by Design

THE purpose of this paper is to pass on to airplane designers the things that have been learned in the last year about flutter and vibration of structures to which control surfaces are attached in order that, benefiting by all experience available, this great source of danger in new designs may be controlled. Test pilots also should be interested in this subject because it may help them in deciding proper action when a case of flutter is encountered and to recognize vibrations which may lead to destructive flutter. The present-day methods of stress analyses, imperfect though they are in certain respects, and the design load-factors in current use are adequate to provide all the strength needed in airplane structures for flight in rough air, and for all necessary maneuvers. A review of structural failures in the air reveals the fact that a resonant vibration was in nearly all cases responsible.
Technical Paper


After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
Technical Paper


THIS paper presents a brief history of past experience at Boeing with turbosupercharged airplanes. Installation problems are discussed by the author who also offers suggestions for future design. A basic airplane and engine are chosen and several types of supercharging analyzed by Mr. Disch. A method of turbo selection is also briefly presented by him. Assuming that flight at 25,000 ft is desired, a comparison of range and payload is shown, depicting the benefits of employing a cruising type of turbosupercharger for increased fuel economy and range. In conclusion, the author summarizes the overall benefits with this type of installation.
Technical Paper


AERATION of aircraft-engine oil has spasmodically caused trouble with pressure regulation for several years. A protracted investigation and test program by Wright Aeronautical Corp., though still unfinished, shows by laboratory, test stand, and flight test, that some facts well known for years have been neglected and aeration of oil therefore invited while deaeration has been definitely restrained. A review of basic facts and known methods indicates that if they were taken into account in design and service operation, we could go a long way in reducing trouble with oil pressure regulation due to entrained air, according to Mr. Weeks. The engine itself, obviously, is the main source of entrained air, but the scavenge pumps are not solely responsible, the author reports. Oil fed to them from gear trains contains 6-20% very finely divided air. Entrained air is, he concludes, inherent to engines with integral reduction drive gears, supercharger drives, and multiple accessory drives.
Technical Paper


DURING 1945 many new ideas and developments started to be put in practice in the civil air transport industry. A large portion of these, along such lines as automatic flight control, emergency equipment, airport design, and instrument landing development, came from the vast experimental work carried on by the military during the war. Mr. Kelly in this paper summarizes and reviews the important points in the papers sponsored by the SAE Air Transport Activity during 1945. He mentions that the airlines are increasing their engineering staffs and he believes that these staffs should cooperate to the fullest extent in the future with the manufacturers. He stresses the need for adequate training programs in the airline industry. He tells the new problems that are present in the industry today and some possible solutions to them. This is a comprehensive paper of the progress made in the air transport industry.
Technical Paper

THE AIRPLANE ICING PROBLEM and Its Alleviation through Research

FOR the benefit of those who, though interested, have been unable to follow recent developments in ice-prevention equipment, Mr. Jones summarizes the results of research over the past few years. An excellent series of photographs is included to show both the various forms of ice accumulation and the use of thermal equipment to overcome this hazard. The conclusion reached is that properly designed thermal devices properly operated can satisfactorily prevent most icing of airplane surfaces where such prevention is necessary.
Technical Paper


The paper on integrated flight systems briefly reviews the growth of flight instruments and automatic flight controls, and points out the need for integrated flight systems. Three manufacturers, namely: Collins, Sperry and Bendix, are producing integrated systems today. Each of these systems is reviewed, with the review centering on instrumentation. The third part of the paper presents airline views on the application of integrated systems and points out installation problems. In conclusion the paper indicates that many changes can be expected in the future as a result of improvements and installation of additional aids.
Technical Paper

Convertiplanes and Other VTOL Aircraft

REVIEW is given of some representative current configurations and propulsion arrangements for VTOL aircraft. Support is urged for a comprehensive development program on VTOL aircraft to cover the spectrum of aircraft flight speeds and promising propulsion arrangements. Special effort and support is needed on ducted-propeller and ducted-fan types, the author says, as these show considerable promise for commercial and military transport use. Development of this type is dependent upon the availability of suitable powerplants. Efforts to reduce the landing and take-off distance requirements of conventional fixed-wing airplanes should continue, he feels, but it should not be accepted as an interim step toward or a substitute for true VTOL aircraft development.
Technical Paper


THIS paper deals in a general way with a brief history of the work that has been done in the past on aircraft fuel systems to adapt them for high-altitude flight, the reasons for failures that developed, some of the physical aspects of aircraft fuel at high altitude, and a brief description of the Thompson Booster system. The discussion of the physical behavior of aviation fuel at high altitude is based upon observations made during many laboratory tests. Observed behavior of fuel systems in laboratory altitude simulations is described and differences between this and apparent behavior during actual flight are explained. Due to these differences, it is pointed out, no direct correlation between laboratory simulations and actual flight performance can be made at the present time. Until this handicap can be overcome, prediction of fuel-system performances must be based upon comparison between simulation tests some of which are simulations of satisfactory fuel systems.