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Video

Fiber Optic Strain Sensor Standardization - International and European Activities

2012-03-16
There are worldwide activities in developing guidelines and standards for fiber optic sensors. Fiber optic sensors (FOS) are increasingly demanded for structural health monitoring purposes and for measurement of physical and chemical quantities because of their specific features. However, they are not yet widely established for practical use due to a lack of guidelines and confirmed standards. Therefore, there are few groups worldwide which are very active in developing standards for use of FOS in different fields, particularly driven from aircraft industry, oil industry or the necessity to provide sensor systems for health monitoring of structures with a certain level of risk. The benefits of guidelines and/or standards on the way to well-validated and well-specified sensor systems will be presented by means of related examples. The presentation will also give an overview on the state-of-the-art and most relevant activities. Results achieved are discussed.
Video

Study of Materials and Coatings Used for Drilling Carbon Fiber Re-inforced Plastics

2012-03-14
With the increased usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in the aircraft industry, there has been increased pressure to improve cutting tool life. Tungsten carbide tools were the first to be applied to CFRP materials. Poly Crystalline Diamond (PCD) tools also became an acceptable material to be used as a cutting tool material. In recent years, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond tools have become more popular as a cutting tool material for CFRP. This study compares these possible cutting tool materials in the drilling of CFRP. Wear is measured as well as hole quality. Life is determined by common industry standards with regard to fiber break out in a common CFRP material. An economic analysis is conducted in order to determine cost per hole. Presenter Christophe Petit
Video

Validating Time Triggered Ethernet on a Space Vehicle

2012-03-14
This presentation provides a overview of validating Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) for use as the network to interconnect the avionics for manned Space Vehicle. The next manned Space Vehicle will use Time Triggered-Gigabit Ethernet (TT-GbE) leveraged from commercial development of TTE critical Intellectual Property. There are several validation considerations of either separating TTE segments or adding new TTE segments onto the network caused by the different phases of a manned space vehicle from pre-launch to re-entry. Considerable amount of validation testing has been successfully performed on TT-GbE/TTE. Presenter Victor Revelle, Honeywell International Inc.
Video

Eurocae WG-72 Activities

2012-03-16
The presentation provides an overview about the activities of Eurocae Working Group 72 (WG-72) starting with a brief synopsis of the context which suggested why such a committee should be established in 2006. It then goes into further detail about the drivers for the work of the committee, which call for the products to be delivered. It addresses some of the challenges with respect to its users. It points out that one of the lessons the committee learned was importance of the focus on the users, such that the products provide their maximum utility. Hence, the users should better be among the participants to achieve this objective. Other industries have dealt with the subject of Information System (or Cyber-Physical) Security long before this industry was forced to consider it. Consequently there are many industry standards and national or international norms, which may help to develop what is deemed needed for Civil Aviation.
Technical Paper

Airplane Vibrations and Flutter Controllable by Design

1933-01-01
330030
THE purpose of this paper is to pass on to airplane designers the things that have been learned in the last year about flutter and vibration of structures to which control surfaces are attached in order that, benefiting by all experience available, this great source of danger in new designs may be controlled. Test pilots also should be interested in this subject because it may help them in deciding proper action when a case of flutter is encountered and to recognize vibrations which may lead to destructive flutter. The present-day methods of stress analyses, imperfect though they are in certain respects, and the design load-factors in current use are adequate to provide all the strength needed in airplane structures for flight in rough air, and for all necessary maneuvers. A review of structural failures in the air reveals the fact that a resonant vibration was in nearly all cases responsible.
Technical Paper

RECENT AIRCRAFT ENGINE DEVELOPMENTS

1922-01-01
220030
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
Technical Paper

Fluidity and Other Properties of Aviation-Engine Oils

1929-01-01
290040
SELECTION of the proper crude is an important consideration in the manufacture of aviation-engine oils. The authors class petroleum into asphalt-base, paraffin-base and mixed-base crudes, stating that scientific research and actual-performance tests have demonstrated the advantages of paraffin-base oils over asphalt-base oils for aviation engines, and that their superiority is now conceded by most authorities. Much attention has been given recently to the dewaxing and fractionating of lubricating oils, and this has resulted in an improvement in their quality and in their unrestricted use as “all-weather aero oils.” After quoting statements from several authorities who agree that an oil which will meet both summer and winter requirements is desirable, the authors give the definitions of viscosity, fluidity, consistency and plasticity determined by the American Society for Testing Materials and then discuss the fluidity or consistency of aviation-engine oils below their A. S. T.
Technical Paper

Application of TURBOSUPERCHARGERS to POSTWAR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT

1946-01-01
460207
THIS paper presents a brief history of past experience at Boeing with turbosupercharged airplanes. Installation problems are discussed by the author who also offers suggestions for future design. A basic airplane and engine are chosen and several types of supercharging analyzed by Mr. Disch. A method of turbo selection is also briefly presented by him. Assuming that flight at 25,000 ft is desired, a comparison of range and payload is shown, depicting the benefits of employing a cruising type of turbosupercharger for increased fuel economy and range. In conclusion, the author summarizes the overall benefits with this type of installation.
Technical Paper

REVIEW OF AIR TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS IN AMERICA

1946-01-01
460249
DURING 1945 many new ideas and developments started to be put in practice in the civil air transport industry. A large portion of these, along such lines as automatic flight control, emergency equipment, airport design, and instrument landing development, came from the vast experimental work carried on by the military during the war. Mr. Kelly in this paper summarizes and reviews the important points in the papers sponsored by the SAE Air Transport Activity during 1945. He mentions that the airlines are increasing their engineering staffs and he believes that these staffs should cooperate to the fullest extent in the future with the manufacturers. He stresses the need for adequate training programs in the airline industry. He tells the new problems that are present in the industry today and some possible solutions to them. This is a comprehensive paper of the progress made in the air transport industry.
Technical Paper

THE AIRPLANE ICING PROBLEM and Its Alleviation through Research

1946-01-01
460245
FOR the benefit of those who, though interested, have been unable to follow recent developments in ice-prevention equipment, Mr. Jones summarizes the results of research over the past few years. An excellent series of photographs is included to show both the various forms of ice accumulation and the use of thermal equipment to overcome this hazard. The conclusion reached is that properly designed thermal devices properly operated can satisfactorily prevent most icing of airplane surfaces where such prevention is necessary.
Technical Paper

INTEGRATED FLIGHT SYSTEMS

1956-01-01
560281
The paper on integrated flight systems briefly reviews the growth of flight instruments and automatic flight controls, and points out the need for integrated flight systems. Three manufacturers, namely: Collins, Sperry and Bendix, are producing integrated systems today. Each of these systems is reviewed, with the review centering on instrumentation. The third part of the paper presents airline views on the application of integrated systems and points out installation problems. In conclusion the paper indicates that many changes can be expected in the future as a result of improvements and installation of additional aids.
Technical Paper

Convertiplanes and Other VTOL Aircraft

1957-01-01
570017
REVIEW is given of some representative current configurations and propulsion arrangements for VTOL aircraft. Support is urged for a comprehensive development program on VTOL aircraft to cover the spectrum of aircraft flight speeds and promising propulsion arrangements. Special effort and support is needed on ducted-propeller and ducted-fan types, the author says, as these show considerable promise for commercial and military transport use. Development of this type is dependent upon the availability of suitable powerplants. Efforts to reduce the landing and take-off distance requirements of conventional fixed-wing airplanes should continue, he feels, but it should not be accepted as an interim step toward or a substitute for true VTOL aircraft development.
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