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Technical Paper

Guiding Framework for Feasibility Evaluation of Localised Production and Drop in Blending of Aviation Turbine Fuel with Bio Derivatives for Non-civilian Air Bases

The potential for small scale local production of Bio fuel derivatives and their partial blending with aviation turbine fuel in non-civilian bases has been investigated. A feasibility study on technical readiness levels for process viability is presented in the paper. Demand side analysis for various blend mixes and corresponding requirement for production facilities and land area requirements are performed. Sustainable production and blending operations are the basis for selection of key performance indicators for the air base. Guiding framework and readiness evaluation processes are delineated for the base. Qualitative inference is combined with quantitative scoring system within the framework.

Coolant Hose - Normal Service Type Convoluted, Wire Support Hose (Supplement to SAE J20 for Government Use Replacing Part of MS51008)

This SAE Standard provides ordering information for any SAE 20R5 hose type (such as “EC, HT, LT” or combination thereof.) This is a wire-reinforced hose for coolant circulating systems of automotive type engines. This hose consists of a convoluted section with plain ends. The hose shall contain a wire helix or helices in the convoluted section. It is a supplement for Government use but may be used by others.

Emergency Warning Device and Emergency Warning Device Protective Container

This SAE Standard provides test procedures and performance requirements for emergency warning devices (triangular shape), without self-contained energy sources, that are designed to be carried in motor vehicles and used to warn approaching traffic of the presence of a stopped vehicle, except for devices designed to be permanently affixed to the vehicle, and provides test procedures and performance requirements for protective containers for such emergency warning devices.
Technical Paper

Computing Remaining Fatigue Life Under Incrementally Updated Loading Histories

After manufacture, every military vehicle experiences a unique history of dynamic loads, depending on loads carried, missions completed, etc. Damage accumulates in vehicle structures and components accordingly, leading eventually to failures that can be difficult to anticipate, and to unpredictable consequences for mission objectives. The advent of simulation-based fatigue life prediction tools opens a path to Digital Twin based solutions for tracking damage, and for gaining control over vehicle reliability. An incremental damage updating feature has now been implemented in the Endurica CL fatigue solver with the aim of supporting such applications for elastomer components. The incremental updating feature is demonstrated via the example of a simple transmission mount component. The damage state of the mount is computed as it progresses towards failure under a series of typical loading histories.

S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics Over Extended Distances

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes guidelines for the use of IEEE-1394-2008 Beta (formerly IEEE-1394b) as a data bus network in military and aerospace vehicles. It encompasses the data bus cable and its interface electronics for a system utilizing S400 over copper medium over extended lengths. This document contains extensions/restrictions to “off-the-shelf” IEEE-1394 standards, and assumes that the reader already has a working knowledge of IEEE-1394. This document does not identify specific environmental requirements (electromagnetic compatibility, temperature, vibration, etc.); such requirements will be vehicle-specific and even LRU-specific. However, the hardware requirements and examples contained herein do address many of the environmental conditions that military and aerospace vehicles may experience. One should refer to the appropriate sections of MIL-STD-461E for their particular LRU, and utilize handbooks such as MIL-HDBK-454A and MIL-HDBK-5400 for guidance.

Tech Briefs: September 2018

Enhanced SATCOMs for Unmanned Aerial Systems The Bus Too Tough to Die Combating Infrared Threats on the Battlefield Optical Interconnect Design Challenges in Space High-Performance Computing for the Next-Generation Combat Vehicle Merging Antenna and Electronics Boosts Energy and Spectrum Efficiency Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic Systems Development of magneto-optical (MO) materials could lead to a range of nonreciprocal optical devices for emerging standardized photonic integrated circuit (PIC) fabrication processes. Low Power Optical Phase Array Using Graphene on Silicon Photonics Electrostatic doping of 2D materials embedded in waveguides could enable ultrafast devices with unprecedented power. Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive Plenoptic Camera New technology captures spectral and spatial information of a scene in one snapshot while raising pixel counts and improving image quality.

Tech Briefs: May 2018

New Technologies Tackle UAV Challenges Robotic Applique Kits Leverage Existing Assets Educating UGVs Implementing AI Advancements in Thermal Image Training Data Sets Protecting Critical Data on Unmanned Underwater Platforms Advancements Made to the Wingman Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) Simulation: How to Operate the SIL New features include the creation of virtual environments that match real-world gunnery test courses. Soldier-Robot Team Communication: An Investigation of Exogenous Orienting Visual Display Cues and Robot Reporting Preferences The effective use of robots to conduct dangerous missions depends on accurate man-machine communications. Soft Robotic Fish Swims Alongside Real Ones in Coral Reefs GPS Enabled Semi-Autonomous Robot Combining GPS signals with acoustic and encoder data gives a robot the ability to determine its location and orientation within a reference frame.

Counterfeit Parts and Their Impact on the Supply Chain, Second Edition

Why should the supply chain be concerned if their buyers or subcontractors are purchasing counterfeit electronic parts or if their products contain counterfeit electronic parts? If these parts end up in items that are safety critical and security-risk sensitive such as aviation, space, and defense products, whole secure systems can be comprised. As organizations have become aware of counterfeit parts, one of their responses may be to test upon acceptance or prior to receipt. But testing alone may not detect all counterfeits. Possible sources of counterfeits include products that did not meet quality control requirements and were not destroyed, overruns sold into the market place, unauthorized production shifts, theft, and e-waste. The counterfeited electronic part ends up in the supply chain when ordered by an unsuspecting buyer, who does not confirm the originating source of the part.

Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) Management Practices

Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) is the loss or impending loss of manufacturers or suppliers of critical items and raw materials due to production discontinuance. DMSMS is an increasingly difficult problem for DoD weapon systems because the manufacturing lives of many critical items get shorter while the life cycles of military weapon systems keep increasing. Traditionally, efforts to mitigate the effects of DMSMS have been reactive; that is, the effects are addressed only when they are seen. This reactive approach to DMSMS solutions leads to decisions that put a premium on faster solution paths with attractive short-term gains in order to avoid system inoperability, while ignoring the long-term solution paths that would lead to generic families of solutions or larger-scale solutions with the capability of avoiding future DMSMS issues. In order to solve DMSMS issues with lower overall cost, DMSMS solutions must change from reactive to proactive.

Chassis Committee Panel: Durability Discussion for Commercial and Military Vehicles

Moderator - Xiaobo Yang, Oshkosh Corporation Panelists - Mehdi Ahmadian, Virginia Tech. Neil Bishop, CAEfatigue, Ltd. Ram Iyer, ArcelorMittal This technical panel focuses on innovative and improved durability development, analysis methodologies, and problem-solving techniques in the commercial and military vehicle industry. The subjects of interest include: studies and discussion on (1) duty cycle development and customer usage correlation; (2) fatigue of metallic and non-metallic materials (3) environmental effects on fatigue performance (4) effect of manufacturing processes and operating condition uncertainties on durability performance, and (5) durability performance validation and testing methodologies.
Training / Education

Metallurgy All-Access Bundle

For products made of metal, many problems occur because people overlook metallurgy when making design, manufacturing, and supplier decisions and when working on quality problems. Created for design, quality, and manufacturing engineers, the 11 metallurgy courses in this bundle teach practical metallurgy concepts and how to apply them to real-world problems and decisions. Online Courses Principles of Metallurgy Learn the metallurgical fundamentals of how alloying, heat treatment, and cold working are used to modify metal strength.

National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program Requirements for Nonconventional Machining

This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for suppliers of Nonconventional Machining Services to be accredited by the National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program (NADCAP). NADCAP accreditation is granted in accordance with SAE AS7003 after demonstration of compliance with the requirements herein. The requirements may be supplemented by additional requirements specified by the NADCAP Nonconventional Machining and Surface Enhancement (NMSE) Task Group. Using the corresponding Audit Criteria (PRI AC7116) will ensure that accredited Nonconventional Machining suppliers meet all of the requirements in this standard and all applicable supplementary standards. The purpose of this audit program is to assess a supplier's ability to consistently provide a product or service that conforms to the technical specifications and customer requirements.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics on Nondestructive Testing of Additively Manufactured Parts in the Mobility Industry

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, also known as 3D printing, has transitioned from concepts and prototypes to part-for-part substitution and the creation of unique AM-specific part geometries. These applications are increasingly present in demanding, mission-critical fields such as medicine and aerospace, which require materials with certain thermal, stiffness, corrosion, and static loading properties. To advance in these arenas, metallic, ceramic, and polymer composite AM parts need to be free from discontinuities. The manufacturing processes have to be stable, robust, and repeatable. And the nondestructive testing (NDT) technology and inspection methods will need to be sufficiently capable and reliable to ensure that discontinuities will be detected to prevent the components from being accepted for use. As the second installment of a six-part series of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports on AM, this one discusses the need, challenges, technologies, and opportunities for NDT in AM.

How to Manage the Perfect Factory or How AS6500 Can Lead To Everlasting Happiness

Why AS6500? Where did it come from? Why does it exist? Those are easy questions to answer. It came from the inspiration of angels and it exists to make your life, and your factory, more perfect. That's why, when you open the standard, you can still hear the faint echoes of the singing of angels. Actually, experts were gathered from across the country, both from the Defense Department and from industry to create the new document. They toiled away until the perfect product emerged from the fruit of their labors: Aerospace Standard AS6500, "Manufacturing Management Program," published in November 2014. How to Manage the Perfect Factory combines education and instruction with fun, laughter and motivation. The book gently pokes fun at the people and organizational barriers that the Manufacturing function must overcome to make those obstacles seem more surmountable while providing key information on implementing AS6500.
Training / Education

Ferrous Metals Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron

Ferrous metals contain iron and are prized for their tensile strength and durability. Most are magnetic and contain a high carbon content which generally makes them, with the exception of wrought iron and stainless steel, vulnerable to rust. The following seven on-demand courses are included in the Ferrous Materials Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron. Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.
Training / Education

Metals Bundle

Almost 75% of all elements are metals. Metals can be classified as either ferrous or non-ferrous and generally conduct electricity and heat well. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are, in general, heavier than other elemental substances.The following six on-demand courses are included in the Materials bundle. Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.
Training / Education

AS9145 Requirements for Advanced Product Quality Planning and Production Part Approval

Production and continual improvement of safe and reliable products is key in the aviation, space and defense industries. Customer and regulatory requirements must not only be met, but they are typically expected to exceeded requirements. Due to globalization, the supply chain of this industry has been expanded to countries which were not part of it in the past and has complicated the achievement of requirements compliance and customer satisfaction. The IAQG has established and deployed the AS9145 Standard, as a step to help achieve these objectives.
Training / Education

Introduction to Airframe Engineering Design for Manufacturing, Assembly and Automation

Why is a design for manufacturing, assembly and automation so important? This introductory course on airframe engineering will cover the importance of design for manufacturing, assembly and automation in aerospace. It will review what the key drivers are for a “good” design and some of the key points for manufacturing and assembly of aircraft components. It will look at how an engineer can combine traditional technologies with new, cutting-edge technologies, to determine the best scenario for success.