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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.

Lectures of the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium

Proceedings from the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium now available through SAE International. One of the most prestigious conferences on engine development in the industry today, the International Vienna Motor Symposium, now in its 32nd year, gathers world renowned experts to discuss the current and future state of motor technology. According to Dr. Hans Peter Lenz, president of the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers, who opened this year’s conference, markets are now in a better position to understand how internal combustion engines and electrified powertrains can actually complement each other. Presenters offered their input and experience in the development of new technologies enabling higher levels of fuel efficiency and power, longer range and a cleaner way for the mobility industry to move forward. The proceedings, available in two volumes and a CD, contain all the technical papers given during the meeting, both in English and in German.

Minimum Performance Standard for a Cabin Occupant Personal Oxygen Dispensing Unit for use from 40,000 to 45,000 Feet

This Aerospace Standard (AS5727) will provide the basis for a certification approach and contain the methods or criteria for verification of performance required of Oxygen Dispensing Units for use by cabin occupants in the range of 40,000 to 45,000 ft. cabin altittude. 1.1 Purpose - This AS is intended to identify the performance required of Personal Oxygen Dispensing Units in the range of 40,000 to 45,000 ft.

Human Engineering Considerations with Implementation of Aided Flight Vision forVertical Flight Platforms All Weather Operations

Identify the phase of flights that can take benefit of Aided Visual Flight for the various missions of helicopters both VFR and IFR such as: Commercial Air Transport Operations offshore and onshore, EMS (Air ambulance), Law enforcement (Operations with Specific Approvals),Search and Rescue (SAR) operations both in Maritime and Mountainous operations The Aided Flight should be considered with various levels of on-boarded sensor technology and its performance such as, but not limited to: NVG, Addition of Axial IR Sensor (with minimum performance to define), Potential use of orientable search light (night VFR) and other situation awareness means like HTAWS, SVS, and sensor like Radio Altimeter including the display mean head-down or head worn that influence operational aspects.

Combustion Instability

Combustion instability has long been recognized as one of the most important but difficult problems in the development of propulsion systems. The U.S. and the former Soviet Union were simultaneously working during the Cold War to solve the instability problem. However, the scientific basis and engineering approach employed by the Soviets remained largely unknown to the Western world. This book—much of it formerly classified material--is a clear exposition of much of the theoretical work on combustion instabilities, performed in support of the Soviet liquid rocket program during its most vigorous period. While there are similarities between Western and Eastern works, there are many distinct differences. The author was one of the small group of Soviet theorists actively engaged in all of the Soviet liquid rocket programs. His development of the field is firmly grounded in fundamental ideas, and progresses to applications of a general sort.

Guidelines for Human Subject Testing

The aim of this document is to establish a standardized approach for Human Subject Testing considering varying performance requirements of different user groups on aircraft as Flight Crew, Cabin Crew and Passengers. The document will provide guidance for definition of significant topics relevant to equipment and system certification. The document will include information regarding ethical aspects, criteria to select human subjects for testing, safety of test subjects, requirements to medical personnel to attend tests and in particular if humans are exposed to elevated altitudes. Recommendation will be provided regarding test result monitoring and data validity

Quick Connect Fluid Coupling Specification for Water/Glycol Coolant System Interconnect

This SAE Recommended Practice defines the dimensional characteristics and minimum performance requirements for quick connect couplings between flexible tubing or hose and rigid tubing or tubular fittings used in glycol/water coolant systems. This document applies to automotive and truck applications under the following conditions: a. Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, and electrical propulsion cooling systems. b. Operating pressure up to 206 kPa, 2.06 bar, (30 psig). c. Operating temperatures from -40 °C (-40 °F) to 125 °C (260 °F). Quick connect couplings function by joining the connector to a mating end form typically without the use of tools. The requirements stated in this document apply to new connectors in assembly operations unless otherwise indicated.

SAE Demo Day in Tampa - Highlights

In May 2018, SAE International in partnership with THEA and leading AV technology companies gave citizens in Tampa a chance to test ride the future. The event included a pre- and post-ride survey, a ride in an automated vehicle, interactive displays and engagement with industry experts. See highlights of the event and feedback from participants.

Combustion in Compression-Ignition Engines, 2018

Papers in this subscription deal with classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and mode change are also included.

Multi-Dimensional Engine Modeling, 2017

This collection covers advances in the development and application of models and tools involved in multi-dimensional engine modeling: advances in chemical kinetics, combustion and spray modeling, turbulence, heat transfer, mesh generation, and approaches targeting improved computational efficiency. Papers employing multi-dimensional modeling to gain a deeper understanding of processes related to turbulent transport, transient phenomena, and chemically reacting, two-phase flows are included in this collection.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulors, An Innovative Tool for Molds Development

Mold designers and foundrymen spend a lot of time in developing molds without knowing exactly the phenomena which take place inside. Simulor, which has been used in an industrial environment for two years, offers the solution to make foundrymen understand what happens during the filling of the mold and the solidification of the part. Based on navier-stokes and heat transfer equations, simulor provides speed distribution and metal front evolution in the cavity and thermal map in the mold and the part. Some examples with different metals (cast iron, aluminum alloy) cast with various processes (sand or die casting, low pressure or gravity casting) will be given. This new tool will given foundrymen the opportunity to test the mold before having it machined and will also allow reduction in development delays.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of the Unsteady Laminar Flame Propagation in a Closed Cylindrical Combustion Bomb

Unsteady laminar flame propagation confined in a closed cylindrical combustion bomb is studied by numerical computation for an axisymmetric two-dimensional laminar flame. Computation includes complete two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations of change for a chemically reacting propane-air mixture. Implicit Continuous fluid Eulerian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite difference technique, simplified reaction kinetics models, and artificial flame stretching transformation and inverse transformation were adopted in the calculation. Physically realistic flame behavior can be demonstrated even with rather coarse computing cell size, simplified reaction kinetics models, and personal computer level low power computing machines.
Technical Paper

Input Loading for Squeak & Rattle CAE Analysis

A method to create a CAE load by utilizing the vibration motions at structure attachments has been developed. This method employs the concept of enforced motion as the constraints of boundary conditions to create an equivalent input force/moment matrix for a sub-structure with multi-point attachments. The main assumption is that motions at the attachments of the sub-structure should be the same as the known motions of the main structure under the generated input load. The key concept of the developed methodology is the calculation of the input dynamic compliance matrix for sub-structure attachment locations. This method is developed to create a system level input load to be used for squeak and rattle CAE analysis on a component or sub-system. It can also be used for minor component design change evaluation using only the component CAE model, yet as if it is assembled in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Developing Robust Vibration Excitation and Control Methods for Evaluating Rattle Noise in Automotive Components

The authors participated in a task force that was required to develop a repeatable, dependable, and reliable test procedure to compare, rate, and evaluate the severity of rattles. The assemblies involved in the study are designed and manufactured by different companies and are tested by different people on test equipment and instrumentation from different suppliers. The challenges therefore, were considerable and involved both the vibration inputs and responses as well as the acoustic responses. At the beginning of this activity, it was observed that different test labs using the same Ford vibration specs were obtaining different sounds from the same test item! Clearly, this was unacceptable and the test methods had to be improved and standardized. This paper focuses on vibration related to rattle testing. The particular assemblies used in this study were seat belt retractors.
Technical Paper

Some New Diagnostic Parameters for Reciprocating Engines

Condition monitoring through signal analysis is not as well established for reciprocating engines as it is for rotating machines. One of the reason is that it has to deal with non-stationary vibrations. In this paper, some new statistical indicators are defined for the detection and separation of close transient events. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, for instance for valve mechanics or for combustion rises. Their performances are compared on real vibrations of a small 4 cylinder diesel engine and it is finally verified that they allow the reconstruction of the engine cycle.