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Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Calibrating BEV and HEV Powertrains for Dynamic Performance Targets

2021-09-05
2021-24-0100
Selecting powertrain modules and calibrating their interactions under requirements for efficiency, dynamic response, thermal limitations and many more features, defines a wide range of engineering activities in need of precise and reliable system diagnostic techniques. We report on test, analysis and optimization procedures to support the selection of powertrain modules, their integration and test within a propulsion system, and finally, the methods and procedures applied in vehicle calibration projects. In particular, the paper includes specific reports on • Test procedures for routine “status and state of health” diagnostics of e-motors which, during powertrain development, might have suffered from repeated and excessive high load tests.
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