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Book

Proceedings for the Joint Conference: MFPT 2013 and ISA's 59th International Instrumentation Symposium

2013-05-13
The result of a combined effort between the Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology (MFPT) and the International Society of Automation (ISA), which held their conferences together in May, 2013, the proceedings are now are available in print format. Focusing on the theme of Sensors and Systems for Reliability, Safety and Affordability, the Joint Conference MFPT 2013 and ISA’s 59th International Instrumentation Symposium reflected the importance of sensing and condition management systems in lowering sustainment costs. The proceedings contain 33 technical papers chosen out of the 120 presented during the various sessions.
Book

The Tao of Measurement

2015-06-01
This book deals with the past, present, and future of flow, sensors, and measurement. It is called The Tao of Measurement because, like the Tao itself, it reveals the underlying principles of flow and measurement. It explains the engineering and physics of flow and sensors, how our units of measurement were derived, present day measurement practices, and how today's scientific tools can improve our units of measurement. The book's opening chapters explore the technologies of temperature, pressure, and flow measurement. The authors reveal the history of units of measurement and describe how they came to be used today. The book then presents a thorough discussion of the different types of temperature sensors, pressure transmitters, and flowmeters. It contains an explanation of applications, and then comments on trends in sensors and measurement. Each chapter includes a handy glossary of units of measurement.
Standard

Cables, Fiber Optic, Aerospace, General Specification For

2018-04-04
WIP
AS8041
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the testing methods for all aerospace optic cables. The application of the test methods are defined in the slant sheets. Technical, dimensional, mechanical and operating performance requirements for the associated aerospace fiber optic cables are detailed in the applicable specification slant sheet. In the event of conflict between this standard and the slant sheet, the slant sheet shall take precedence.
Standard

Epoxy Installation Techniques for Aerospace Fiber Optic Assemblies

2019-03-28
WIP
ARP7983
Describes the different types of epoxies, methods of mixing, installation and inspections into optical connectors/terminus. Illustrate typical examples of processing equipment and tooling. Highlight critical parameters and potential failure modes during epoxy processing.
Standard

Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) Recommended Practices

2019-04-03
WIP
JA1013
The scope of this document is to clearly lay out the path for an organization to implement a CBM approach to maintenance. The practices will include both CBM in design and in the support phase for fielded equipment.
Standard

Aerospace Epoxy Technologies

2019-04-05
WIP
AIR7993
To detail the different epoxy types available for different aerospace applications which require different temperature ranges. Explain incoming/final inspection requirements and storage requirements. Examine the epoxy chemical make up with explanations of purpose in performance.
Standard

Reliability Assurance of Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Based Devices Used in Aerospace Applications

2019-10-24
WIP
ARP6676
This document is intended to provide reliability assurance recommended practices for the deployment of individual photonic devices and PIC-based devices into aerospace platforms, focusing on reliability requirements to reach Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7, 8 and 9. It will cover reliability assurance tests for single element and PIC chips, packaged single element and PIC chips and some single element and PIC based higher functionality modules, such as fiber-optic transmitters and receivers, free space optical transmitters and receivers, illuminators and sources for optical sensors. The document will provide the reasons and methods for aerospace reliability assurance of PIC chips, PIC based packages and PIC based devices. It will be as inclusive as possible, including PIC chips fabricated in the main material systems: semiconductors (Group IV, III-V, II-VI), electro-optic crystals (lithium niobate) and polymers.
Collection

Autonomous Systems, 2019

2019-04-02
With a mandate in Europe for autonomous emergency braking systems, there is a development happening with radar and camera based systems to do collision mitigation. The challenges include robust object tracking, stationary object detection, reactions for false positives, etc. The developments and challenges in the collision mitigation technology are included in this collection.
Technical Paper

Antiwear Properties and Applications of Thin Hard Coatings

1996-04-01
91A106
Different techniques, like PVD, CVD, ion implantation, are increasingly used to produce thin film layers of ceramic compounds to modify the surface properties of metals, carbides, ceramics or polymeric components for specialized conditions or in severe conditions of use. Carbides, nitrides, oxides, etc. have been deposited on the most varied supports to solve problems of high temperature, erosion, corrosion, diffusion and conductivity or electrical resistance. The fields of thin hard coating applications are: tools, dies, punches, mechanical components (for antiwear deposits), structures (for anticorrosion), optics (reflecting or absorbing layers) and microelectronics. In this paper we will present the principal characteristics of different thin hard coating layers and processes, and the principal applications in the anti-wear field.
Technical Paper

Detection of Icing and Related Loss of Control Effectiveness in Regional and Corporate Aircraft

1999-04-20
1999-01-1583
This paper presents a method of detecting aircraft icing by monitoring its effects on aircraft dynamics. This paper shows that uncontrolled icing on control surfaces directly influences control effectiveness. Using data from onboard attitude and navigation sensors via highly computationally efficient algorithms, the control effectiveness is estimated, thereby detecting icing. Using actual flight test data from NASA Lewis Research Center, this paper demonstrates the ability of this method to detect the loss of elevator effectiveness that occurs with uncontrolled horizontal stabilizer icing that could result from a failed deicing boot. The method is generally applicable to loss of control effectiveness due to icing. Icing affects the aerodynamic performance of aircraft by contaminating the aerodynamic surfaces. Without anti-icing equipment icing, if sufficiently severe, can relatively quickly lead to a situation in which controllable flight is impossible.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Practicability of a Secondary Air Injection for Emission Reduction

1999-05-03
1999-01-1540
In this study, feasibility tests of secondary air injection technology and lean A/F control technology were performed for LEV program using the FTP75 test on a 2.0 DOHC A/T vehicle. Second-by-second emissions and temperatures were evaluated. The temperatures of exhaust gas were measured at exhaust manifold, front of warm up, and the center of warm up converter. At first, amount of secondary air injection was determined with a bench aged warm up converter and a fresh UCC. And then, the performances of secondary air injection and lean A/F control strategy were compared with 80,000km vehicle aged converters(warm up converter, UCC). Both secondary air injection and lean A/F control technologies satisfied the ULEV regulation. This study shows that the lean A/F control strategy can be one of the potential technologies to meet the LEV/ULEV regulations without an active system that need a cost up.
Technical Paper

Fuel Quality Control by Mid Infrared Spectroscopy

1999-05-03
1999-01-1546
Gasolines and diesel fuels of wide source were analyzed with the aim to predict the quality through the mid infrared spectroscopy and the algorithms PCA-PCR and PLS. The results revealed that octane number, cetane number, MTBE, benzene, aromatics and specific gravity could be predicted with good reliability. The other relevant fuel physical-chemical characteristics were beyond the precision of the standard test methods.
Technical Paper

Reversibility of Sulfur Effects on Emissions of California Low Emission Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1544
The Coordinating Research Council conducted a program to measure the reversibility of fuel sulfur effects on emissions from California Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). Six LEV models were tested using two non-oxygenated conventional Federal fuels with 30 and 630 ppm sulfur. The following emission test sequence was used: 30 ppm fuel to establish a baseline, 630 ppm fuel, and return to 30 ppm fuel. A series of emission tests were run after return to 30 ppm to ensure that emissions had stabilized. The effect of the driving cycle on reversibility was evaluated by using both the LA4 and US06 driving cycles for mileage accumulation between emission tests after return to 30-ppm sulfur fuel. The reversibility of sulfur effects was dependent on the vehicle, driving cycle, and the pollutant. For the test fleet as a whole most but not all of the sulfur effects were reversible.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Sulfur with Automotive Catalysts and the Impact on Vehicle Emissions-A Review

1999-05-03
1999-01-1543
The requirement to meet more stringent emission standards has focused attention on the effects of gasoline sulfur on automotive emissions. Numerous studies have shown that three-way catalyst performance is severely inhibited by sulfur. A literature review of laboratory studies on the interaction of sulfur with automotive catalyst components provides the basis for understanding impacts on catalyst activity under the variety of conditions encountered in vehicle operation. Under stoichiometric and rich conditions, SO2 formed during combustion is dissociatively adsorbed on platinum group metal surfaces to form strongly bound Sad. Sulfur inhibition results from both physical blockage and electronic effects of Sad, such that low coverage of Sad results in disproportionately higher levels of reaction site blockage. This is responsible for the nonlinear effects observed with increasing fuel sulfur level.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Potential of a Natural Gas Vehicle as EEV

2000-06-19
2000-01-1863
The natural gas vehicle has high potential as an Environmentally Enhanced Vehicle (EEV). In order to achieve low-emissions, a precise gaseous injection system coupled with optimized feedback control is necessary for the natural gas engines. An advanced natural gas vehicle, such as the Honda Civic GX, can meet the Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle (SULEV) emission standard in California and also meet the future European & Japanese emission standards. The low-emission natural gas vehicle emits very low off-cycle emissions, air toxic emissions and has zero-fuel evaporative emissions. The use of natural gas-based fuels achieves CO2 emission reductions relative to use of petroleum-based fuels. Low-emission NGVs are attractive for use in urban and metropolitan city centers to reduce smog.
Technical Paper

A Compact and Robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) for Generating Non-Thermal Plasma in Automotive Exhaust

2000-06-19
2000-01-1845
We describe the details of a particular compact and robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) that generates non-thermal plasma in the harsh environment of a stoichiometric exhaust. This particular CDD™ can generate plasma power of up to 15W at exhaust gas temperatures to 850C. Optimizations of geometry, material selection, and thermal design were performed by a combination of simulation and experiment. This particular design considered tradeoffs of several factors, including plasma power, EMI shielding, thermal durability, high voltage interconnection, packaging size, and exhaust emissions reduction. This particular CDD™ was designed to meet most of the same durability and survivability specifications as an O2 sensor, since both are exposed to similar exhaust environments.
Technical Paper

Improving the Aerodynamic Stability of a Practical, Low Drag, Aero-Stable Vehicle

2000-04-02
2000-01-1577
The aerodynamic drag of future low emission vehicles will need to be low. Unfortunately, vehicle shapes that result in low drag coefficients - of the order of 0.15 - are often aerodynamically unstable in crosswinds. The addition of wheels, transmission, radiators, suspension, steering, brakes, air ducts and wing mirrors can easily increase this drag coefficient to 0.24 and above and produce an undesirable lift distribution. The Aero-Stable Carbon Car (ASCC) is a research project, in conjunction with industrial partners, to design and build a practical 3 to 4 seat low drag car (CD less than 0.20) with an acceptable lift distribution (front to rear) which is also stable in crosswinds and in yaw through a series of low speed wind tunnel tests performed in the Cranfield College of Aeronautics 8′ × 6′ wind tunnel facility.
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