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Video

Polycarbonate Glazing - Accelerated Wiper Testing, Surface Characterization and Comparison with On-Road Fleet Data

2012-05-23
Exatec� PC glazing technology team, has developed advanced weathering and abrasion resistant coatings technology that can be applied to protect polycarbonate. It is of particular interest to quantify and understand the factors that determine the surface abrasion performance of coated PC in rear window and backlight applications that have a wiper system. In the present study we describe Exatec's lab scale wiper testing equipment and test protocols. We also describe adaptation of optical imaging system to measure contrast and nano-profiling using nano-indenter, as post wiper surface characterization methods. These methods are more sensitive to fine scratches on glazing surface than standard haze measurement and mechanical profilometry. Three coating systems were investigated; Siloxane wetcoat (A), Siloxane wetcoat (B), and Siloxane wetcoat (B) plus plasma coat (Exatec� E900 coating). The performance comparisons were made using all these surface characterization methods.
Video

Business Model for Successful Commercialization of Aircraft Designs

2012-03-21
In any new aircraft development program there are many important design decisions that determine profitability potential. The key to making new aircraft profitable is to design features that will command more money than the cost to provide them within the market's ability to absorb them. The business model in this paper shows how to predict or find: 1) the costs to provide various aircraft features; 2) the values that aircraft buyers place on these features; 3) the amount of money that buyers have to commit to them, 4) the open spaces in the market in which to place new designs and 5) the predicted profits from new designs. In this process, this paper extends previous work on the law of value and demand, which states that attributes determine value; value determines price; and that price determines demand. This four-dimensional, non-negative system hosts a business model that describes the features needed to enable aircraft designs to go from concepts to profitable assembly lines.
Video

Enabling New Optical Fiber Applications in Avionics Networks

2012-03-21
Optical fiber has begun replacing copper in avionic networks. So far, however, it has been mainly restricted to non-critical applications (video transmission to the flight deck, IFE?). In order to take advantage of the high-bandwidth, low weight, no EMI properties of optical fibers in all data transmission networks, it will be necessary to improve the testing. One part of the puzzle, which is still missing, is the self-test button: the possibility to check the network and detect potential failures before they occur. The typical testing tool of a technician involved in optical fiber cables is the ?light source ? optical power meter? pair. With this tool, one can measure the insertion loss of the fiber link. A second important parameter, the return loss at each optical connector, is not analysed. In addition, this is only a global measurement, which does not allow the detection of possible weak points.
Video

Automating AFP Tuning Using a Laser Sensor

2012-03-22
Electroimpact Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) machines lay-up composite parts by accurately placing carbon fiber tow (strips of impregnated carbon fiber) on a mould. In order to achieve high accuracy at high speeds, the processes of feeding and cutting tows must be tuned. Historically, the tuning has been a time-consuming, manual process. This paper will present a methodology to replace manual measurements with an automated laser, improve measurement speed by an order of magnitude, improve accuracy from +/? 0.020? (manual) to +/? 0.015? (laser), and eliminate human error. Presenter Joshua Cemenska, Electroimpact Inc.
Technical Paper

Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1526
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of the Influences of Wear on the Vibrations of Power Units

2020-09-30
2020-01-1506
Numerical Analysis of the Influences of Wear on the Vibrations of Power Units Yashwant Kolluru, Rolando Doelling eBike Department Robert Bosch GmbH Kusterdingen, Germany yashwant.kolluru@de.bosch.com rolando.doelling@de.bosch.com Lars Hedrich Institute of Informatics Goethe University Frankfurt Frankfurt, Germany hedrich@em.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de The prime factor, which influences vibrations of electro-mechanical drives, is wear at the components. This paper discusses the numerical methods developed for abrasion, vibration calculations and the coupling between wear and NVH models of drive unit. Wear is a complex process and understanding it is essential for vibro-acoustics. The paper initially depicts finite element static model used for wear calculations. The special subroutines developed, aids in coupling the wear equations, various contact and friction formulations to the numerical model.
Technical Paper

Inverse Vibration Problem Used for the Characterization of the Damping Added by a Trim Foam on a Plate

2020-09-30
2020-01-1580
Many solutions exist to insure the NVH comfort of ground and air vehicles, like heavy mass (bitumen pads), viscoelastic treatments and absorbing foams. The trim foam is an alternative to heavy solutions. To know the potential of the foam, a study of its capacity to damp vibration is done. A system, composed by a suspended plate, with a foam on it, is characterized in different cases of contact at the foam-plate interface (glued or not) and with different types of foam. An experimental test facility is developed to identify the global damping of the structure: a laser vibrometer measures the displacement field of the foam-plate structure, an inverse method is used to determine the structural parameters. By changing the contact at the interface, it is possible to identify the contribution of the friction forces to the global damping of the structure. Another type of damping is the viscoelastic damping due to the intrinsic characteristics of the trim foam.
Technical Paper

Experimental study on fuel transcritical injection characteristics about macroscopic and near-nozzle microscopic structure

2020-09-15
2020-01-2118
The supercritical fluid combustion technology was regarded as an effective method to increase fuel gas mixing rate and performance. During the transcritical injection and combustion process, critical characteristics dominate the jet development to behave as different spray structure. Due to the limited researches about fuel transcritical injection characteristics, macroscopic and near-nozzle microscopic spray structure was observed respectively. In this work, a transcritical injection device was designed able to heat the fuel temperature up to 773 K and maintain the fuel injection pressure stable at 4 MPa. The experiment was conducted with the fuel injecting from supercritical condition to atmosphere condition. As a comparison, two fluids were selected to conduct transcritical injection experiment. The n-heptane was used to represent the surrogate of the supercritical diesel, while the cryogenic nitrogen was selected to represent the ideal gas.
Book

Adaptive Cruise Control

2006-09-27
This book contains 63 papers covering the past 11 years (1996-2006) of research on the progress and challenges in the design of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems and components. Introduced in the automotive market in 1995, ACC takes advantage of the functions of several existing electronic control units and adds a sensor for measuring distance, relative speed, and lateral position of potential target vehicles using laser optics or millimeter waves.
Book

Navigation and Intelligent Transportation Systems

1998-09-15
Navigation and Intelligent Transportation Systems contains 40 papers covering the technical and functional aspects of these systems including: 3D mapping, route guidance, cellular phone access, electronic compasses, and the history and future of navigation systems. The book also covers the important role of navigation in Intelligent Transportation Systems concerned with traffic management, traveler information, vehicle control systems, commercial vehicle operations, and public and rural transportation systems. The book concludes with a chapter on the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, a joint program between the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Federal Transit Administration.
Technical Paper

Material Handling in the Pontiac Assembly Plant

1929-01-01
290072
CONVEYORS and handling systems often are planned and installed after a building is erected. The Pontiac plant, described in this paper, is an exception because it was designed without limitations as to space and for a definite production program. With the aid of photographs and floor plans on which the positions from which the photographs were taken are indicated, the complete production line of the plant is shown in detail. The order of assembly and the points at which various units are applied to the chassis are shown; also the locations of the storage spaces for many of the parts and the provisions for transporting them to the assembly line. Among the striking features of the chassis-assembly line is a hump, midway of the length of the building, which raises the chassis to the mezzanine level to allow passage underneath.
Technical Paper

The Application of Photoelasticity to the Study of Indeterminate Truss-Stresses

1932-01-01
320068
THIS paper contains a brief description of the history, theory and application of photoelasticity, which is a new and useful optical method of stress analysis. A simple, cheap and compact photoelastic polariscope developed for the purpose is described. The application of photoelasticity to indeterminate truss-stress analysis produces quantitative stress measurements within a maximum experimental error of 6 per cent. The tests yield with considerable speed and convenience information concerning stress concentrations at corners and fillets that cannot be obtained by other methods. The author describes a photoelastic test of an airplane-wing-rib model whereby the axial and bending stresses in the members are determined and severe stress concentrations at the spar corners are noted.
Technical Paper

Indicators as a Means of Improving Aircraft-Engine Performance

1932-01-01
320012
OPTICAL, balanced-pressure, electrical and sampling-valve indicators are discussed with particular reference to their shortcomings. Sampling-valve indicators possess the advantage of simplicity, as compared with the balanced-pressure type, and make a permanent record on ordinary indicator paper. The sampling or averaging type and the electric or instantaneous type each has fields of usefulness not covered by the other. The electric indicator is claimed to be the most satisfactory device for transient and qualitative work such as combustion study, but the sampling type is said to be better suited for engine development, valve-timing studies, supercharging and similar work.
Technical Paper

Aerial Navigation-Methods and Equipment

1932-01-01
320042
HEREIN the author describes methods and shows instruments, tables, scales and curves used for air navigation. The ground-speed-and-drift meter devised by him and used with such remarkable success in the round-the-world flight with Wiley Post in less than nine days, on which the author was navigator, is illustrated and described. Much has been accomplished in the last few years in providing methods and equipment for quickly and accurately determining the position and laying the correct course of aircraft, but considerable improvement remains to be made in instruments, particularly sextants. No one method of navigation can be used under all conditions; a combination of four is necessary to achieve the best results.
Technical Paper

Flight Control by Air Visualization

1932-01-01
320043
BLIND flying without special training, together with general improvement in flight control, is possible with a new simplified type of artificial horizon. The instrument in most respects provides a safer reference for control than does the natural horizon, because it deals directly with the real source of control, which is the air. Air is to the airplane as the road to an automobile; the different movements of the airplane relative to its own road of air primarily determine its control. To make such movements visible is a function of instruments, but a set of several different instruments to show separate movements of the airplane is unnecessarily complicated and expensive. A single instrument giving the unity and simplicity of the natural horizon but having a directness of reading that can be obtained only from the directly adjacent air is the remedy.
Technical Paper

Mooring Masts and Landing Trucks for Airships

1929-01-01
290054
ATTAINMENT of the full potentialities of airships as carriers is dependent upon and will be greatly expedited by the solution of mooring and ground-handling problems. It is felt that the fundamental solutions have been found, and trials of newly designed equipment are virtually at hand. Communities that desire to erect mooring masts and provide servicing facilities are advised to await patiently the further trial of experimental equipment designed by the engineers stationed at the Naval Air Station at Lakehurst, N. J. This equipment is now under construction on contract. Evolution of the mooring mast, a British post-war device, and the present methods of mooring an airship to the mast are described to show the trend of development.
Technical Paper

Report of the Tractor and Implement Safety Lighting Program

1954-01-01
540224
PROPER lighting of slow-moving farm vehicles-a necessity when these vehicles travel the highways at night-was the problem tackled by the SAE Tractor and Implement Safety Light Subcommittee and a corresponding FEI committee. Among the results of their work, which is reported in this paper, are: 1. A standard breakaway connector for the tractor and implement lighting system. 2. A telescoping staff lamp that can be extended to the left, when needed for safety, to show the left-hand end of an implement. 3. Changes in the Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways to permit use of such a staff lamp. 4. A lamp with an extension cord for use where a staff lamp is not long enough. 5. A proposed standard bracket for holding the extension-cord lamp.
Technical Paper

An AIRCRAFT DOUBLE WINDSHIELD-Its DEVELOPMENT and USE

1943-01-01
430156
ARIOUS means that have been tried to eliminate the annoyance of ice on aircraft windshields are briefly discussed by Mr. McBrien. The three chief losses that have to be compensated when heat methods are employed result from the formation of ice due to: 1. The impact of subcooled water droplets. 2. Evaporation freezing. 3. Heat lost to the air flowing over the windshield. The development of the double windshield currently used by United Air Lines is discussed, with mention of the shortcomings of the several transparent materials used in the installation. Experience during the past two winters has proved that adequate heat can be supplied the double windshield from the cabin heating system of the DC-3 airplane to prevent ice from obscuring vision in all except the most severe conditions encountered in scheduled operations.
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