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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Book

The Business of Winning

2007-01-01
Motorsport Valley® is the dynamic motorsport industry cluster of companies whose global influence is as strong as ever. Learn more about the innovative technologies which continue to deliver world-beating success in the outstanding MIA publication - The Business of Winning. In-depth, up-to-the-minute features and case studies fill the full-colour 100-plus pages. The Business of Winning analyses the pioneering ideas, processes and capabilities that characterize Motorsport Valley® and UK high-performance engineering and features exciting images which bring the story to life. The Business of Winning, supported by UK Trade & Investment, focuses on the successful companies that comprise Motorsport Valley and highlights their presence at the forefront of the global motorsport industry. This is THE case-study source for customers, business leaders, researchers, students and fans.
Book

Combustion Instability

2008-01-01
Combustion instability has long been recognized as one of the most important but difficult problems in the development of propulsion systems. The U.S. and the former Soviet Union were simultaneously working during the Cold War to solve the instability problem. However, the scientific basis and engineering approach employed by the Soviets remained largely unknown to the Western world. This book—much of it formerly classified material--is a clear exposition of much of the theoretical work on combustion instabilities, performed in support of the Soviet liquid rocket program during its most vigorous period. While there are similarities between Western and Eastern works, there are many distinct differences. The author was one of the small group of Soviet theorists actively engaged in all of the Soviet liquid rocket programs. His development of the field is firmly grounded in fundamental ideas, and progresses to applications of a general sort.
Standard

Compatibility of Turbine Lubricating Oils

2019-07-16
WIP
ARP7120
This method is used for determining the compatibility of a candidate lubricant with specific reference lubricants. The reference lubricants will typically be mandated by the product specification against which the candidate lubricant is being compared. This method is based on Federal Standard 791 method 3403 and Defence Standard 05-50 (Part 61) method 24, incorporating the modifications called for in SAE AS5780.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

1996-04-01
91A128
Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulors, An Innovative Tool for Molds Development

1996-04-01
91A117
Mold designers and foundrymen spend a lot of time in developing molds without knowing exactly the phenomena which take place inside. Simulor, which has been used in an industrial environment for two years, offers the solution to make foundrymen understand what happens during the filling of the mold and the solidification of the part. Based on navier-stokes and heat transfer equations, simulor provides speed distribution and metal front evolution in the cavity and thermal map in the mold and the part. Some examples with different metals (cast iron, aluminum alloy) cast with various processes (sand or die casting, low pressure or gravity casting) will be given. This new tool will given foundrymen the opportunity to test the mold before having it machined and will also allow reduction in development delays.
Technical Paper

Actuation and Fastening With Shape Memory Alloys in the Automotive Industry

1996-04-01
91A103
As a result of a phase transformation, shape memory alloys can change their shape when the temperature changes. This unusual effect can be utilized in actuation and fastening components for automotive applications. Springs made from Ni-Ti shape memory alloys change their rate in a predetermined temperature range due to a significant change in the elastic modules of the material. They can be used as sensor-actuators in pressures control valves or oil cooler by-pass valves in automatic transmissions or to compensate for oil viscosity changes in shock absorbers or thermal expansion of dissimilar materials in gear boxes. If the recovery is constrained, i.e., shape memory element is physically prevented from returning into its original shape, a potentially high stress is generated. This effect is used in fastener rings. Fasteners made from Ni-Ti alloys provide high reliability and easy installation for braid terminations, locating of shaft mounted components, connectors and hose clamps.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Coating for Aluminum Engine and Components

1996-04-01
91A105
The trend toward lighter vehicles for improved performance has recently introduced the use of aluminum and plastic materials for vehicle bodies and drive trains. In particular, the aluminum alloy block foar engine application is certain to reappear. The soft aluminum cylinder liner will require additional treatment before acceptance. Three possible approaches appear to solve the aluminum cylinder liner dilemma. These approaches are: 1) use of high silicon aluminum such as the 390 aluminum; 2) insert or cast steel liners into the aluminum engine block; and 3) ceramic coat the low cost standard aluminum engine block. Each has known advantages and disadvantages. It is the purpose of this paper to present the merits of option 3, the ceramic coated aluminum cylinder bore, from the standpoint of low weight, cost, and tribological effectiveness. The advantages of approaches 1) and 2) are obvious. High temperature after treatment of the ceramic engine components is not required.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

1988-03-01
871171
In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Standard

Key Lubricant Performance Properties for Advanced Aircraft Engines

2019-12-04
WIP
AIR7448
The scope of this document is limited to the lubrication system of a conceptual high performance aircraft turbine engine. This document will not present or disclose any specific design data leading to the specific formulation of an advance engine lubricant or that of an advanced engine. General trends are presented based upon current literature and observations of lubricant/engine experience.
Technical Paper

Calculating Partial Contribution Using Component Sensitivity Values: A Different Approach to Transfer Path Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1693
Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a widely used methodology in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) analysis of motor vehicles. Either it is used to design a vehicle from scratch or it is applied to root cause an existing NVH problem, TPA can be a useful tool. TPA analysis is closely related to the concept of partial contribution. The very basic assumption in TPA is that the summation of all partial contributions from different paths constitutes the total response (which could be either tactile or acoustic). Another popular concept in NVH analysis of vehicles is the component sensitivity. Component sensitivity is a measure of how much the response changes due to a change in one of the components of the system, i.e., the thickness of a panel or elastic rate of an engine mount. Sensitivity rates are more popular among CAE/Simulation community, simply because they are reasonably easy to calculate using mathematical models.
Technical Paper

Door System Design for Improved Closure Sound Quality

1999-05-17
1999-01-1681
Door closing sounds are an important element of the craftsmanship image of a vehicle. This paper examines the relationship between closure sound quality and door system design. The perception of door closing sound quality is shown to be primarily related to it's loudness and sharpness. Of the two, sharpness is more important than loudness. Other factors, like ring-down may also affect closure sound quality. The door system is made up of a number of components. The most important in terms of sound quality are the door and body structure, latch, and door seals. Each of these are classified as either a sound source, a transmission path or a sound radiator. Methods for improving the design of these components for good closure sound quality are discussed in some detail.
Technical Paper

Application of Specialized FEA Dynamic Modeling Techniques for Noise Reduction of Superchargers

1999-05-17
1999-01-1718
A simulation methodology for dynamic modeling of geared rotor systems such as superchargers was used for determining the housing vibration response. The approach provides an ability to make quick parametric design modifications to the model for evaluation of relative noise response with the assumption that the averaged housing vibration level correlates approximately to the noise radiating from the surface. The housing in some cases was modeled as a lumped mass representation for efficiency, and when higher accuracy of housing modes was needed, a detailed flexible Finite Element Analysis (FEA) representation was used. The interesting features of the methodology were the use of constraint equations to model the gear mesh response per unit Transmission Error (TE) input, along with summarizing the component kinetic and strain energy for each mode and the mesh compliance for fast evaluation of opportunities for noise reduction.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Valve Train Noise for the Sound Quality of I. C. Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1711
The dynamic behavior of an OHC valve train system of a spark ignition engine is investigated to characterize the source and transmission of the valve train (VT) vibration and noise and to improve the VT design for better sound quality. The spectral properties of vibration caused by highly transient dynamics of VT system are characterized for the high frequency ranges over 3 kHz, although the overall sound pressure level due to the VT is negligible [1, 2]. For the analysis of valve train a lumped parameter model with 4 d.o.f.'s is developed and validated with the experimental results from a test rig. Experiments are performed on the test rig to measure the valve acceleration, the surface vibration of cylinder head during the operation, and the transfer functions. Also a measurement of cylinder head vibration in a real vehicle has been performed to correlate with the rig test results.
Technical Paper

Noise Analysis of Automotive Alternators

1999-05-17
1999-01-1712
An extensive experimental study of noise generating mechanisms of two production models of automotive alternators is presented. It was established that aerodynamic noise (generated by cooling fans) is dominating at high speeds (above 3,000 rpm), while electromagnetic noise is the most intensive at low rpm. Two directions of noise reduction are proposed and validated: reduction of noise levels generated by alternators to be achieved by using axial flow fans for cooling instead of presently used bladed discs, and radical reduction of operating speed of alternators by using variable transmission ratio accessory drives.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

1999-05-10
1999-01-1630
In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

Design and Acoustic Performance of Baffles Based on Programmed Heat-activated Foams

1999-05-17
1999-01-1673
A programmed heat-activated foam technology has recently been introduced for making baffles to seal hollow car body channels[1,2]. First, we summarize the key characteristics of the programmed foams. Some unique design features such as maximum gap to allow easy E-coat drainage, multiple section design for complex channels, allowance for passage of drainage hose and double-layered baffle are presented. Then, we examine the important design parameters affecting the acoustic performance of baffles based on the programmed foams. The insertion loss(IL) was measured for various baffles expanded in a test channel. The effects of foam expansion ratio, surface density, etc., on the acoustic performance of various single-layered and double-layered baffles are reported.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of the Cylinder Pressure from Vibration Measurements for Prediction of Exhaust and Noise Emissions in Ethanol Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1658
There are growing demands for condition monitoring of IC engines, and therefore any method in order to improve the performance of the engines ought to be evaluated. This paper proposes a new approach for the prediction and optimisation of noise and exhaust emissions in IC engines. The idea is to reconstruct the cylinder pressure from vibration measurements on the engine surface by using the complex cepstrum method [3, 4]. The reconstructed cylinder pressure is further used as input in Multivariate models, based on cylinder pressure, for estimating noise and exhaust emissions. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the method for modelling of noise and exhaust emissions
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