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Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

1988-03-01
871171
In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Technical Paper

Application of Specialized FEA Dynamic Modeling Techniques for Noise Reduction of Superchargers

1999-05-17
1999-01-1718
A simulation methodology for dynamic modeling of geared rotor systems such as superchargers was used for determining the housing vibration response. The approach provides an ability to make quick parametric design modifications to the model for evaluation of relative noise response with the assumption that the averaged housing vibration level correlates approximately to the noise radiating from the surface. The housing in some cases was modeled as a lumped mass representation for efficiency, and when higher accuracy of housing modes was needed, a detailed flexible Finite Element Analysis (FEA) representation was used. The interesting features of the methodology were the use of constraint equations to model the gear mesh response per unit Transmission Error (TE) input, along with summarizing the component kinetic and strain energy for each mode and the mesh compliance for fast evaluation of opportunities for noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of the Cylinder Pressure from Vibration Measurements for Prediction of Exhaust and Noise Emissions in Ethanol Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1658
There are growing demands for condition monitoring of IC engines, and therefore any method in order to improve the performance of the engines ought to be evaluated. This paper proposes a new approach for the prediction and optimisation of noise and exhaust emissions in IC engines. The idea is to reconstruct the cylinder pressure from vibration measurements on the engine surface by using the complex cepstrum method [3, 4]. The reconstructed cylinder pressure is further used as input in Multivariate models, based on cylinder pressure, for estimating noise and exhaust emissions. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the method for modelling of noise and exhaust emissions
Technical Paper

Considerations About Chaotic Dynamics of Exhaust Tube and its Design Optimization in Respect to its Dynamic Properties

1999-05-17
1999-01-1657
Vibration of an exhaust tube with a non-linear fixing construction is analyzed. Numerical and laser holography investigation methods are used for the determination of vibration processes happening nearby the cylinder fixing areas. Obviously, the analyzed non-linear system can produce complex reactions even to harmonic excitations. The knowledge about such zones of “wrong” dynamic behavior may help to eliminate and reduce higher noise levels and extend the lifetime of the construction.
Technical Paper

On the Influence of Manifold Geometry on Exhaust Noise

1999-05-17
1999-01-1650
The influence of manifold geometry on exhaust noise is studied. First, a linear description of the problem is presented, so that potential relevant factors may be identified. Then a full non-linear simulation is performed, for a simple geometry, in order to check, in more realistic conditions, the ideas obtained from the linear theory. The results indicate that, although some qualitative trends may be obtained from the linear analysis, the role of back-reaction of the manifold on the engine (a non-linear coupling effect) may be determinant.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1502
In this study it is tried to reduce NOx and particulate emissions simultaneously in a direct injection diesel engine based on the concept of two-stage combustion. At initial combustion stage, NOx emission is reduced with fuel rich combustion. At diffusion combustion stage, particulate emission is reduced with high turbulence combustion. The high squish combustion chamber with reduced throat diameter is used to realize two-stage combustion. This combustion chamber is designed to produce strong squish that causes high turbulence. When throat diameter of the high squish combustion chamber is reduced to some extent, simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions is achieved with less deterioration of fuel consumption at retarded injection timing. Further reduction of NOx emission is realized by reducing the cavity volume of the high squish combustion chamber. Analysis by endoscopic high speed photography and CFD calculation describes the experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Investigation of Multi-Stage Fuel Injection in a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1501
Increasing concern about the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment has led to ever more stringent emission legislation, and the introduction of more sophisticated equipment to enable the requirements to be achieved. One way of improving the emissions from direct injection (DI) diesel engines is to use multi-stage fuel injection, and an investigation performed on such a system is reported in this paper. In this case, the multi-stage fuel injector caused an increase in the exhaust smoke at low load, and an in-cylinder photographic technique was used to examine why this occurred. A multi-stage fuel injector with a VCO nozzle was fitted to a small, high-speed, direct injection diesel engine fitted with a transparent piston for optical access. The combustion process was filmed using a high-speed 16 mm cine camera, and the fuel injection process was illuminated by a high power, copper-vapour laser.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

A Model For Estimating Oil Vaporization From The Cylinder Liner As A Contributing Mechanism to Engine Oil Consumption

1999-05-03
1999-01-1520
A model has been developed for estimating the oil vaporization rate from the cylinder liner of a reciprocating engine. The model uses input from an external cycle simulator and an external liner oil film thickness model. It allows for the change in oil composition and the change in oil film thickness due to vaporization. It also estimates how the passage of the compression and scraper rings combine with the vaporization to influence the steady-state composition of the oil layer in the upper ring pack. Computer model results are presented for a compression-ignition engine using a range of liner temperatures, several engine speeds, and two different oils. Vaporization is found to be highly dependent on liner temperature and steady-state oil composition. The steady-state oil composition near the top of the cylinder is found to be significantly different than the composition of the oil near the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Wear and Fatigue Using EHL Analysis and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-03
1999-01-1514
The possibility of predicting engine bearing durability by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) calculations was investigated with the aim of being able to improve durability efficiently without conducting numerous confirmation tests. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing of an automotive engine. The mechanisms of wear and fatigue, which determine bearing durability, were estimated by comparing the results of EHL analysis and experimental data. This comparison showed the possibility of predicting the wear amount and the occurrence of fatigue by calculation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Approaches to Understanding Soot Aggregation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1516
During 1998, the US Federal authority introduced a requirement for vehicles powered by heavy duty diesel engines that NOx emissions shall be less than 4 g/bhp.h. This represents a 20% reduction over current levels and has prompted significant further hardware changes. As a result of these increasingly tighter NOx emission constraints, soot loading of diesel engine lubricants - due to retarded fuel injection, is becoming an ever more significant issue in crankcase lubricant formulation. For this reason, increased understanding is required of the mechanism of soot particle aggregation and resultant aggregate morphology - together with the likely consequences for the performance of soot-laden lubricants, for viscosity increase, filter blocking, sludging and (directly or indirectly) - soot-induced wear. We describe here a combined experimental and simulation approach to screening formulated lubricants and characterising soot aggregate structures.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1530
The numbers, sizes, and derived mass emissions of particles from a production DISI engine are examined over a range of engine operating conditions. Particles are sampled directly from the exhaust pipe using heated ejector pump diluters. The size distributions are measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The numbers and sizes of the emitted particles are reported for stratified versus homogeneous operation and as a function of fuel injection timing, spark timing, engine speed, and engine load. The principal finding is that particle number emissions increase by about a factor of 10 - 40 going from homogeneous to stratified charge operation. The particulate emissions exhibit a strong sensitivity to injection timing; generally particle number and volume concentrations increase steeply as the injection timing is retarded, except over a narrow portion of the range where the trend reverses.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1529
The effects of operating parameters (speed, load, spark-timing, EGR, and end of fuel injection timing [EOI]) on engine-out, regulated (total HC, NOx, and CO) and speciated HC emissions have been investigated for a 1.83 L direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine. As the EOI is varied over the range from high to low stratification with other engine parameters held constant, the mole fractions of all regulated emissions vary sharply over relatively small (10-20 crank angle degrees [CAD]) changes in EOI, suggesting that emissions are very sensitive to the evaporation, mixing, and motion of the stratified fuel cloud prior to ignition. The contribution of unburned fuel to the HC emissions decreases while the olefinic partial oxidation products increase as the fuel stratification increases, increasing the smog reactivity of the HC in the exhaust gas by 25%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Properties on Exhaust Odor in DI Diesel Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1531
Exhaust odor of DI diesel engines is worse than that of gasoline engines, especially at low temperatures and at idling. As the number of passenger cars with DI diesel engines is increasing worldwide because of their low CO2 emissions, odor reduction research of DI diesel engines is important. Incomplete combustion is a major cause of exhaust odor. Generally, odor worsens due to overleaning of the mixture in the cylinder and due to fuel adhering on the combustion chamber walls. To confirm this, the influences of different engine running conditions and fuel properties were investigated. The reason for the changes in exhaust odor with injection timing is evaluated by considerations of optimum positions of the maximum heat release. With n-heptane, a low boiling point fuel, odorous emissions increase because of overleaning of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Arctic Engine Oil (OEA-30)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1523
U.S. Army arctic engine oil, MIL-L-46167B, designated OEA, provides excellent low-temperature operation and is multi functional. It is suitable for crankcase lubrication of reciprocating internal combustion engines and for power-transmission fluid applications in ground equipment. However, this product required 22-percent derated conditions in the two-cycle diesel engine qualifications test. Overall, OEA oil was limited to a maximum ambient temperature use of 5°C for crankcase applications. The technical feasibility of developing an improved, multi functional arctic engine oil for U.S. military ground mobility equipment was investigated. The concept was proven feasible, and the new oil, designated as OEA-30, has exceptional two-cycle diesel engine performance at full engine output and can be operated beyond the 5°C maximum ambient temperature limit of the MIL-L-46167B product.
Technical Paper

The Optimum Design for Frictional Surface of Piston Ring of Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1526
Based on the principle of conjugate curve surface and the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, the similar spherical spiral surface, which has the best lubrication effect, was obtained in the paper. Experiment show, this kind of frictional surface is lower 15% at power loss, and it is higher 13% at service life than the traditional frictional surface of piston ring, (such as barrel, stepped, cuneiform, rectangle and so on).
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional In-Cylinder Flow Field in a Natural Gas Fueled Spark Ignition Engine Probed by Particle Tracking Velocimetry and Its Dependence on Engine Specifications

1999-05-03
1999-01-1534
An experimental study was made to investigate in-cylinder flow field in a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine and the effects of engine specifications on in-cylinder flow field. The instantaneous two-dimentional flow fields in a single-cylinder visualization engine, which has 75mm bore and 62mm stroke, were measured in various cross sections perpendicular to the cylinder axis by using the laser light sheet PTV method at various crank angles during intake, compression, and expansion strokes over the wide range of piston combustion chamber configuration, top clearance, and nominal swirl ratio. Flow fields during compression and expansion strokes were also calculated using KIVA2 simulation code for better understanding of the measured results. The results showed that induction-generated swirl is getting concentric to the cylinder center in compression stroke, and is shifted in the radial direction in expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Gas Flows Through the Inter-Ring Crevice and Their Influence on UHC Emissions

1999-05-03
1999-01-1533
Influence of the inter-ring crevice, the volume between the top and second piston rings, on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission was experimentally and numerically investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to estimate the level of UHC emission induced by the blow-up of inter-ring mixture, i.e., unburned gases trapped in the inter-ring crevice. In the experiments, the inter-ring mixture was extracted to the crankcase during the late period of expansion and the early period of exhaust stroke through the engraved grooves on the lower part of cylinder wall. Extraction of the mixture resulted in the significant reductions of UHC emission in proportion to the increments of blowby flow rate, without any losses in efficiency and power. This experimental study has confirmed the importance of inter-ring crevice on UHC emission in an SI engine and established a relationship between the inter-ring mixture and UHC emission.
Technical Paper

The Adoption of SAE Aviation Piston Engine Oil Standards for Military Use

1999-04-20
1999-01-1566
This paper describes the final chapter of the military specifications for aviation piston engine lubricants. The adoption and evolution of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standards J1966 and J1899 from their initial development in 1991 to the present is reviewed. It includes the fine-tuning and revisions of the technical requirements derived from experience gained in qualification programs conducted. Also included are notes regarding the overall commercial oil qualification process and the remaining role of the U.S. Navy for military use approvals
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