Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Ignition, Combustion and Nitric Oxide Formation in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1839
The heat release and pollutant formation processes in a direct injection natural gas engine are studied by coupling detailed chemistry with a multi-dimensional reactive flow code. A detailed kinetic mechanism consisting of 22 species and 104 elementary reactions is chosen by comparing ignition delay predictions with measurements in a combustion bomb. The ignition model is then coupled with a turbulent combustion model and extended Zeldovich kinetics to simulate heat release and nitric oxide production in a direct injection engine. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effect of engine operating conditions which include speed, load, injection timing and level of boost. It is shown that use of detailed chemistry is extremely important to predict the correct ignition delay period as engine operating conditions change. Use of both time and crank angle as the independent variable reveals interesting details of the heat release process as a function of engine speed.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Cycle-By-Cycle Transient Heat Release Analysis in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1185
This study presents a systematic methodology for performing transient heat release analysis in a diesel engine. Novel techniques have been developed to infer the mass of air trapped in the cylinder and the mass of fuel injected on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The cyclic mass of air trapped in the cylinder is found accounting for pressure gradients, piston motion and short-circuiting during the valve overlap period. The cyclic mass of fuel injected is computed from the injection pressure history. These parameters are used in conjunction with cycle-resolved pressure data to accurately define the instantaneous thermodynamic state of the mixture. This information is used in the calculation and interpretation of transient heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

1999-03-01
1999-01-0973
A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

A Four-Stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Simulation for Combustion and Performance Studies

2000-03-06
2000-01-0332
A computer simulation of the Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) four-stroke engine has been developed for combustion and performance studies. The simulation couples models for mass, species, and energy within a zero-dimensional framework. The combustion process is described via a user-defined chemical kinetic mechanism. The CHEMKIN libraries have been used to formulate a stiff chemical kinetic solver suitable for integration within a complete engine cycle simulation, featuring models of gas exchange, turbulence and wall heat transfer. For illustration, two chemical kinetics schemes describing hydrogen and natural gas chemistry have been implemented in the code. The hydrogen scheme is a reduced one, consisting of 11 species and 23 reactions. The natural gas chemistry is described via the GRI-mechanism 3.0 that considers 53 species and 325 reactions, including NOx chemistry.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Thin-Film Thermocouple for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chambers

1990-02-01
900691
A prototype chromel-alumel overlapping thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) has been developed for transient heat transfer measurements in ceramic-coated combustion chambers. The TFTC has been evaluated using various metallurgical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray detection, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The sensor was calibrated against a standard thermocouple in ice, boiling water, and a furnace at 1000°C. The microstructural and chemical analysis of the thin-films showed the alumel film composition was very similar to the bulk material, while the chromel film varied slightly. An initial set of ceramic plug surface temperatures was taken while motoring and firing the engine at 1900 rpm to verify thermocouple operation. The data shows a 613 K mean temperature and a 55 K swing for the ceramic surface compared with a 493 K mean temperature and a 20 K swing for the metal surface at the same location.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Vehicle Powertrain Simulation for Fuel Economy and Performance Studies

1990-02-01
900619
A personal computer-based vehicle powertrain simulation (VPS) is developed to predict fuel economy and performance. This paper summarizes the governing equations used in the model. Then the different simulation techniques are described with emphasis on the more complicated time-dependent simulation. The simulation is validated against constant speed and variable cycle test track data obtained for a 5 ton army truck. Then the simulation is used to compare the performance of the 5 ton truck when powered by a cooled and natually aspirated engine, a cooled and turbocharged engine, and an uncooled and turbocharged engine. Studies of the effect of payload, tire efficiency, and drag coefficient on vehicle performance are also conducted, as well as a performance comparison between manual and automatic transmissions. It is concluded that the VPS code can provide good predictions of vehicle fuel economy, and thus is a useful tool in designing and evaluating vehicle powertrains.
Technical Paper

A Telemetry Linkage System for Piston Temperature Measurements in a Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910299
A telemetry linkage system has been developed for piston temperature measurements in a direct-injection diesel engine. In parallel with the development of the telemetry linkage system, fast response thermocouples were installed at three piston locations - two on the bowl surface and one on the crown surface. A novel design was used to achieve electrical continuity between the piston and the connecting rod by means of a flexible steel strap pivoted on the piston skirt. The telemetry linkage system was then used to transport the electrical wires from the thermocouples to the external data acquisition system. A series of tests was run to determine the effects of location and load on piston surface temperatures. Surface temperature profiles varied substantially among the three locations, reflecting the differences in the combustion and heat flow characteristics of their surrounding regions.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Piston Compounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine Through Computer Simulation

1993-03-01
930986
This paper describes the concept and a practical implementation of piston-compounding. First, a detailed computer simulation of the piston-compounded engine is used to shed light into the thermodynamic events associated with the operation of this engine, and to predict the performance and fuel economy of the entire system. Starting from a baseline design, the simulation is used to investigate changes in system performance as critical parameters are varied. The latter include auxiliary cylinder and interconnecting manifold volumes for a given main cylinder volume, auxiliary cylinder valve timings in relation to main cylinder timings, and degree of heat loss to the coolant. Optimum designs for either highest power density or highest thermal efficiency (54%) are thus recommended. It is concluded that a piston-compounded adiabatic engine concept is a promising future powerplant.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Inlet Port Design in a Uniflow-Scavenged Engine Using a 3-D Turbulent Flow Code

1993-04-01
931181
The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

1986-03-01
860329
A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ceramic Coatings on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions

1991-02-01
910460
An experimental investigation of the effects of ceramic coatings on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was conducted. Tests were carried out over a range of engine speeds at full load for a standard metal piston and two pistons insulated with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thick ceramic coatings. The thinner (0.5 mm) ceramic coating resulted in improved performance over the baseline engine, with the gains being especially pronounced with decreasing engine speed. At 1000 rpm, the 0.5 mm ceramic coated piston produced 10% higher thermal efficiency than the metal piston. In contrast, the relatively thicker coating (1 mm), resulted in as much as 6% lower thermal efficiency compared to baseline. On the other hand, the insulated engines consistently presented an attractive picture in terms of their emissions characteristics. Due to the more complete combustion in the insulated configurations, exhaust CO levels were between 30% and 60% lower than baseline levels.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Piston-Linear Heat Transfer in Low-Heat-Rejeetion Diesel Engines

1988-02-01
880189
A two-dimensional finite element program has been developed to analyze the transient heat flow paths in low-heat-rejection engine combustion chambers. This analysis tool is used to study the transient heat transfer performance of a ceramic-coated piston with steel-alloy rings reciprocating within a ceramic-coated iiner at a speed of 1900 revolutions per minute. Throughout the cycle, the instantaneous boundaries of the combustion chamber are defined based on the position of the piston against the liner. Then, appropriate boundary conditions are applied to the component surfaces at every instant. Instantaneous piston and liner temperature distributions, heat transfer rates from the working fluid to these two components, as well as heat transfer rates between the two components are calculated by the program. The results are compared against the performance of a baseline cast-iron piston-liner assembly.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Fuel Spray Wall Interaction Model in KIVA-II

1991-09-01
911787
The original spray model in the KIVA-II code includes sub-models for drop injection, breakup, coalescence, and evaporation. Despite the sophisticated structure of the model, predicted spray behavior is not in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Some of the discrepancies are attributed to the lack of a fuel jet wall impingement sub-model, a wall fuel layer evaporation sub-model, and uncertainties related to the choice of submodels parameters. A spray impingement model based on earlier research has been modified and implemented in KIVA-II. Heat transfer between the fuel layer on the piston surface and the neighboring gaseous charge has also been modelled based on the Colburn Analogy. A series of two dimensional simulations have been performed for a Caterpillar 1Y540 diesel engine to investigate droplet penetration, impingement, fuel evaporation, and chemical reaction, and the dependence of predictions on certain model parameters.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Spray, Mixing, and Combustion Model Parameters on KIVA-II Predictions

1991-09-01
911785
The combustion process in a diesel engine was simulated using KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional computer code. The original combustion model in KIVA-II is based on chemical kinetics, and thus fails to capture the effects of turbulence on combustion. A mixing-controlled, eddy break-up combustion model was implemented into the code. Realistic diesel fuel data were also compiled. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the code to a number of parameters related to fuel injection, mixing, and combustion was studied. Spray injection parameters were found to have a strong influence on the model's predictions. Higher injection velocity and shorter injection duration result in a higher combustion rate and peak pressure and temperature. The droplet size specified at injection significantly affects the rate of spray penetration and evaporation, and thus the combustion rate. Contrary to expectation, the level of turbulence at the beginning of the calculation did not affect fuel burning rate.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Methodology for Modeling the Transient Thermal Response of SI Engines Subject to Time-Varying Operating Conditions

1997-05-19
971859
A comprehensive methodology for predicting the transient thermal response of spark-ignition engines subject to time-varying boundary conditions is presented. The approach is based on coupling a cycle-resolved quasi-dimensional simulation of in-cylinder thermodynamic events with a resistor-capacitor (R-C) thermal network of the various component and fluid interactions throughout the engine and exhaust system. The dynamic time step of the thermal solution is limited by either the frequency of the prescribed time-dependent boundary conditions or by the minimum thermal time constant of the R-C network. To demonstrate the need for fully-coupled, transient thermodynamic and heat transfer solutions, model behavior is first explored for step-change and staircase variations of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

An Early-Design Methodology for Predicting Transient Fuel Economy and Catalyst-Out Exhaust Emissions

1997-05-19
971838
An early-design methodology for predicting both expected fuel economy and catalyst-out CO, HC and NOx concentrations during arbitrarily-defined transient cycles is presented. The methodology is based on utilizing a vehicle-powertrain model with embedded maps of fully warmed up engine-out performance and emissions, and appropriate temperature-dependent correction factors to account for not fully warmed up conditions during transients. Similarly, engine-out emissions are converted to catalyst-out emissions using conversion efficiencies based on the catalyst brick temperature. A crucial element of the methodology is hence the ability to predict heat flows and component temperatures in the engine and the exhaust system during transients, consistent with the data available during concept definition and early design phases.
Technical Paper

Piston Heat Transfer Measurements Under Varying Knock Intensity in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-05-01
971667
Piston heat transfer measurements were taken under varying knock intensity in a modern spark-ignition engine combustion chamber. For a range of knocking spark timings, two knock intensity levels were obtained by using a high (80°C) and a low (50°C) cylinder head coolant temperature. Data were taken with a central and a side spark plug configuration. When the spark-plug was placed at the center of the combustion chamber, a linear variation of peak heat flux with knock intensity was found in the end-gas region. Very large changes in peak heat flux (on the order of 100%) occurred at probes whose relative location with respect to the end gas zone changed from being within (80°C coolant case) to being outside the zone (50°C coolant case). With side spark-plug, distinct differences in peak heat flux occurred at all probes and under all knock intensities, but the correlation between knock intensity and heat flux was not linear.
X