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Book

Lectures of the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium

2011-05-05
Proceedings from the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium now available through SAE International. One of the most prestigious conferences on engine development in the industry today, the International Vienna Motor Symposium, now in its 32nd year, gathers world renowned experts to discuss the current and future state of motor technology. According to Dr. Hans Peter Lenz, president of the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers, who opened this year’s conference, markets are now in a better position to understand how internal combustion engines and electrified powertrains can actually complement each other. Presenters offered their input and experience in the development of new technologies enabling higher levels of fuel efficiency and power, longer range and a cleaner way for the mobility industry to move forward. The proceedings, available in two volumes and a CD, contain all the technical papers given during the meeting, both in English and in German.
Book

Insight: Fuel Effiency: Fuel Economy Testing (DVD)

2015-04-15
"Spotlight on Design: Insight" features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode "Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing" (12:01), engineers at the EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVL’s technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

1988-03-01
871171
In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1502
In this study it is tried to reduce NOx and particulate emissions simultaneously in a direct injection diesel engine based on the concept of two-stage combustion. At initial combustion stage, NOx emission is reduced with fuel rich combustion. At diffusion combustion stage, particulate emission is reduced with high turbulence combustion. The high squish combustion chamber with reduced throat diameter is used to realize two-stage combustion. This combustion chamber is designed to produce strong squish that causes high turbulence. When throat diameter of the high squish combustion chamber is reduced to some extent, simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions is achieved with less deterioration of fuel consumption at retarded injection timing. Further reduction of NOx emission is realized by reducing the cavity volume of the high squish combustion chamber. Analysis by endoscopic high speed photography and CFD calculation describes the experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Investigation of Multi-Stage Fuel Injection in a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1501
Increasing concern about the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment has led to ever more stringent emission legislation, and the introduction of more sophisticated equipment to enable the requirements to be achieved. One way of improving the emissions from direct injection (DI) diesel engines is to use multi-stage fuel injection, and an investigation performed on such a system is reported in this paper. In this case, the multi-stage fuel injector caused an increase in the exhaust smoke at low load, and an in-cylinder photographic technique was used to examine why this occurred. A multi-stage fuel injector with a VCO nozzle was fitted to a small, high-speed, direct injection diesel engine fitted with a transparent piston for optical access. The combustion process was filmed using a high-speed 16 mm cine camera, and the fuel injection process was illuminated by a high power, copper-vapour laser.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions from Natural Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1507
The objective of the work described here is to test the performance of closed-loop controlled, heavy-duty CNG engines in-use, on fuels of different methane content; and to compare their performance with similar diesel vehicles. Performance is measured in terms of pollutant emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. To achieve this objective, three buses powered by closed-loop controlled, dedicated natural gas engines were tested on the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer facility at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, PM, and THC or NMHC), as well as emissions of alde-hydes for some vehicles, are reported. Two fuels were employed: a high methane fuel (90%) and a low methane fuel (85%). It was found that the NOx, CO, and PM emissions for a given cycle and vehicle are essentially constant for different methane content fuels.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Approaches to Understanding Soot Aggregation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1516
During 1998, the US Federal authority introduced a requirement for vehicles powered by heavy duty diesel engines that NOx emissions shall be less than 4 g/bhp.h. This represents a 20% reduction over current levels and has prompted significant further hardware changes. As a result of these increasingly tighter NOx emission constraints, soot loading of diesel engine lubricants - due to retarded fuel injection, is becoming an ever more significant issue in crankcase lubricant formulation. For this reason, increased understanding is required of the mechanism of soot particle aggregation and resultant aggregate morphology - together with the likely consequences for the performance of soot-laden lubricants, for viscosity increase, filter blocking, sludging and (directly or indirectly) - soot-induced wear. We describe here a combined experimental and simulation approach to screening formulated lubricants and characterising soot aggregate structures.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1530
The numbers, sizes, and derived mass emissions of particles from a production DISI engine are examined over a range of engine operating conditions. Particles are sampled directly from the exhaust pipe using heated ejector pump diluters. The size distributions are measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The numbers and sizes of the emitted particles are reported for stratified versus homogeneous operation and as a function of fuel injection timing, spark timing, engine speed, and engine load. The principal finding is that particle number emissions increase by about a factor of 10 - 40 going from homogeneous to stratified charge operation. The particulate emissions exhibit a strong sensitivity to injection timing; generally particle number and volume concentrations increase steeply as the injection timing is retarded, except over a narrow portion of the range where the trend reverses.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1529
The effects of operating parameters (speed, load, spark-timing, EGR, and end of fuel injection timing [EOI]) on engine-out, regulated (total HC, NOx, and CO) and speciated HC emissions have been investigated for a 1.83 L direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine. As the EOI is varied over the range from high to low stratification with other engine parameters held constant, the mole fractions of all regulated emissions vary sharply over relatively small (10-20 crank angle degrees [CAD]) changes in EOI, suggesting that emissions are very sensitive to the evaporation, mixing, and motion of the stratified fuel cloud prior to ignition. The contribution of unburned fuel to the HC emissions decreases while the olefinic partial oxidation products increase as the fuel stratification increases, increasing the smog reactivity of the HC in the exhaust gas by 25%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Properties on Exhaust Odor in DI Diesel Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1531
Exhaust odor of DI diesel engines is worse than that of gasoline engines, especially at low temperatures and at idling. As the number of passenger cars with DI diesel engines is increasing worldwide because of their low CO2 emissions, odor reduction research of DI diesel engines is important. Incomplete combustion is a major cause of exhaust odor. Generally, odor worsens due to overleaning of the mixture in the cylinder and due to fuel adhering on the combustion chamber walls. To confirm this, the influences of different engine running conditions and fuel properties were investigated. The reason for the changes in exhaust odor with injection timing is evaluated by considerations of optimum positions of the maximum heat release. With n-heptane, a low boiling point fuel, odorous emissions increase because of overleaning of the mixture.
Technical Paper

The Optimum Design for Frictional Surface of Piston Ring of Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1526
Based on the principle of conjugate curve surface and the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, the similar spherical spiral surface, which has the best lubrication effect, was obtained in the paper. Experiment show, this kind of frictional surface is lower 15% at power loss, and it is higher 13% at service life than the traditional frictional surface of piston ring, (such as barrel, stepped, cuneiform, rectangle and so on).
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional In-Cylinder Flow Field in a Natural Gas Fueled Spark Ignition Engine Probed by Particle Tracking Velocimetry and Its Dependence on Engine Specifications

1999-05-03
1999-01-1534
An experimental study was made to investigate in-cylinder flow field in a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine and the effects of engine specifications on in-cylinder flow field. The instantaneous two-dimentional flow fields in a single-cylinder visualization engine, which has 75mm bore and 62mm stroke, were measured in various cross sections perpendicular to the cylinder axis by using the laser light sheet PTV method at various crank angles during intake, compression, and expansion strokes over the wide range of piston combustion chamber configuration, top clearance, and nominal swirl ratio. Flow fields during compression and expansion strokes were also calculated using KIVA2 simulation code for better understanding of the measured results. The results showed that induction-generated swirl is getting concentric to the cylinder center in compression stroke, and is shifted in the radial direction in expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Gas Flows Through the Inter-Ring Crevice and Their Influence on UHC Emissions

1999-05-03
1999-01-1533
Influence of the inter-ring crevice, the volume between the top and second piston rings, on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission was experimentally and numerically investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to estimate the level of UHC emission induced by the blow-up of inter-ring mixture, i.e., unburned gases trapped in the inter-ring crevice. In the experiments, the inter-ring mixture was extracted to the crankcase during the late period of expansion and the early period of exhaust stroke through the engraved grooves on the lower part of cylinder wall. Extraction of the mixture resulted in the significant reductions of UHC emission in proportion to the increments of blowby flow rate, without any losses in efficiency and power. This experimental study has confirmed the importance of inter-ring crevice on UHC emission in an SI engine and established a relationship between the inter-ring mixture and UHC emission.
Technical Paper

The Adoption of SAE Aviation Piston Engine Oil Standards for Military Use

1999-04-20
1999-01-1566
This paper describes the final chapter of the military specifications for aviation piston engine lubricants. The adoption and evolution of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standards J1966 and J1899 from their initial development in 1991 to the present is reviewed. It includes the fine-tuning and revisions of the technical requirements derived from experience gained in qualification programs conducted. Also included are notes regarding the overall commercial oil qualification process and the remaining role of the U.S. Navy for military use approvals
Technical Paper

Newton II Aircraft Powerplant Test Cell Mount

1999-04-20
1999-01-1580
The study of piston aircraft engines with the propeller mounted as the load has been restricted due to the equipment needed to measure the combination of instant engine torque and vibrational movements. This work details the development of an engine mount that has a torque sensitivity of less than 0.05 pound-feet for measuring horsepower, vibration forces, and torque. The hydraulic force measurement system used in the project is discussed and evaluated with the limitations encounter. A torque balance system that can be checked with primary weights for absolute accuracy was developed and described as well as the methods for determining instant vibrational forces and rotational stresses.
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