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Video

Development of High-Efficiency Rotary Engines

2012-05-10
In this presentation, we will explain how the traditional Miller Cycle - which has its limitations in the traditional four-stroke, Otto Cycle engine provides new opportunities for greater fuel efficiency gains and engine downsizing when incorporated in a split-cycle combustion process. Results will also be shared from studies showing how these implementations can provide both significant drops in fuel consumption and increases in power when incorporated into some of today's most economic vehicles. Presenter Stephen Scuderi, Scuderi Group LLC
Collection

Engine Boosting Systems, 2017

2017-03-28
The papers in this collection cover conceptual, modeling, and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Collection

Engine Boosting Systems, 2015

2015-04-14
This technical paper collection covers conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Collection

Engine Boosting Systems, 2018

2018-04-03
The papers in this collection cover conceptual, modeling, and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Journal Article

High Power-Density, High Efficiency, Mechanically Assisted, Turbocharged Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2019-05-02
Abstract More than a decade ago, we proposed combined use of direct injection (DI) and jet ignition (JI) to produce high efficiency, high power-density, positive-ignition (PI), lean burn stratified, internal combustion engines (ICEs). Adopting this concept, the latest FIA F1 engines, which are electrically assisted, turbocharged, directly injected, jet ignited, gasoline engines and work lean stratified in a highly boosted environment, have delivered peak power fuel conversion efficiencies well above 46%, with specific power densities more than 340 kW/liter. The concept, further evolved, is here presented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. Results of simulations for a new DI JI ICE with rotary valve, being super-turbocharged and having gasoline or methanol as working fuel, show the opportunity to achieve even larger power densities, up to 430 kW/liter, while delivering a near-constant torque and, consequently, a nearly linear power curve over a wide range of speeds.
Collection

Engine Boosting Systems, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Friction Reduction by Synergistic Optimization of the Cylinder Bore Surface and Lubricant Part 1: Basic Modelling

2021-09-21
2021-01-1214
The piston assembly is the major source of tribological inefficiencies among the engine components and is responsible for about 50% of the total engine friction losses, making such a system the main target element for developing low-friction technologies. Being a reciprocating system, the piston assembly can operate in boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Computer simulations were used to investigate the synergistic effect between low viscosity oils and cylinder bore finishes on friction reduction of passenger car internal combustion engines. First, the Reynolds equation and the Greenwood & Tripp model were used to investigating the hydrodynamic and asperity contact pressures in the top piston ring. The classical Reynolds works well for barrel-shaped profiles and relatively thick oil film thickness but has limitations for predicting the lubrication behavior of flat parallel surfaces, such as those of Oil Control Ring (OCR) outer lands.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Friction Reduction by Synergistic Optimization of Cylinder Bore Surface and Lubricant - Part 2: Engine Tribology Simulations and Tests

2021-09-21
2021-01-1217
In the present work, a system approach to the tribological optimization of passenger car engines is demonstrated. Experimental data and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the role of surface specifications, ring pack, and lubricant on the piston/bore tribology. The importance of in-design “pairing” of low-viscosity motor oils with the ring pack and the cylinder bore characteristics in order to achieve maximum reduction in GHG emissions and improvement in fuel economy without sacrificing the endurance is elucidated. Earlier motored friction data for two different gasoline engines - Ford Duratec and Mercedes Benz M133 - using motor oils of different viscosity grades are now rationalized using AVL EXCITE® piston/bore tribology simulations. The main difference between the engines was the cylinder bore surface: honed cast iron vs thermally sprayed, and the valve train type: direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) vs roller finger follower (RFF).
Technical Paper

The Effects of the Specific Material Selection on the Structural Behaviour of the Piston-Liner Coupling of a High Performance Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1235
The materials commonly employed in the automotive industry are various and depend on the specific application field. For what concern the internal combustion engines the choice is guided by the thermomechanical performance required, technological constraints and production costs. Actually, for high-performance engines, steel and aluminium are the most common materials selected for the piston and the cylinder liner manufacturing. This study analyses the effect of possible material choice on the interaction between piston and cylinder liner, via Finite Element analyses. A motorcycle engine is investigated considering two possible pistons: one (standard) made of aluminium and one made of steel. Similarly, two possible cylinder liners are considered, the original one made of aluminium and a different version made of steel obtained by simply thinning the aluminium component in order to obtain two structurally equivalent components.
Technical Paper

Work Extraction Efficiency in a Series Hybrid Opposed Piston Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1242
This work investigates the development of a novel series hybrid architecture utilizing a single cylinder opposed piston engine. The opposed piston engine presents unique benefits in a hybrid architecture such as its lower heat transfer due to a favorable surface area to volume ratio and lack of a cylinder head, as well as the thermodynamic benefits of two stroke operation with uniflow scavenging. A particular focus of this effort is the work extraction efficiency of two design concepts. The first design concept utilizes a geartrain to couple the crankshafts of the engine in a conventional manner, providing a single power take-off for coupling to an electric motor/generator. In this design, the large inertia of the geartrain dampens the speed fluctuation of the single cylinder engine, reducing the peak torque required to for the electric machine. However, the friction losses caused by the geartrain limit the maximum work extraction efficiency.
Technical Paper

Customized and Market Specific Thermal Robust Clutch System Solution

2021-09-21
2021-01-1239
The goal of reducing fuel consumption and CO2-Emission is leading to turbo-charged combustion engines that deliver high torque at low speeds (down speeding). To meet NVH requirements damper technologies such as DMF (Dual Mass Flywheel) are established, leading to reduced space for the clutch system. Specific measures need to be considered if switching over from SMF (Single Mass Flywheel) to DMF [8]. Doing so has an impact on thermal behavior of the clutch system, for example due to reduced and different distribution of thermal masses and heat transfer to the surroundings. Taking these trends into account, clutch systems within vehicle powertrains are facing challenges to meet requirements e.g. clutch life, cost targets and space limitation. The clutch development process must also ensure delivery of a clutch system that meets requirements taking boundary conditions such as load cycles and driver behavior into account.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Engine Oils: Scientific Rationale and Controversies

2021-09-05
2021-24-0067
Since a significant part of energy losses in the internal combustion engine comes from viscous dissipation, the trend has shifted toward low-viscosity oils from SAE 40 and 50 in the 1960s-1980s to current SAE 20 and lower viscosity grades. Use of low viscosity engine oils significantly reduces energy losses in the main bearing and piston/bore systems, while tribological stresses on the valvetrain - especially in flat-tappet cammed engines - may increase. This makes a strong argument for deploying new classes of friction modifiers and antiwear additives. However, development of a balanced formulation is not as straightforward as it appears, and numerous pitfalls may be encountered due to additive interactions. Another serious problem is that the definition of “fuel-economy engine oil” is rather vague, as it depends on choice of reference oil. Nowadays, the assessment of fuel economy is often based on the Sequence VIE or VIF tests using a 2012 3.6L GM V6 gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations of an Optically Accessible Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2021-09-05
2021-24-0045
The combustion process in spark-ignition engines can vary considerably cycle by cycle, which may result in unstable engine operation. The phenomena amplify in natural gas (NG) spark-ignition (SI) engines due to the lower NG laminar flame speed compared to gasoline, and more so under lean burn conditions. The main goal of this study was to investigate the main sources and the characteristics of the cycle-by-cycle variation in heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) engines converted to NG SI operation. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder optically-accessible CI engine with a flat bowl-in piston that was converted to NG SI. The engine was operated at medium load under lean operating conditions, using pure methane as a natural gas surrogate. The CI to SI conversion was made through the addition of a low-pressure NG injector in the intake manifold and of a NG spark plug in place of the diesel injector.
Technical Paper

A Study on Prediction of Unburned Hydrocarbons in Active Pre-chamber Gas Engine: Combustion Analysis Using 3D-CFD by Considering Wall Quenching Effects

2021-09-05
2021-24-0049
To reproduce wall quenching phenomena using 3D-CFD, a wall quenching model was constructed based on the Peclet number. The model was further integrated with the flame propagation model. Combustion analysis showed that that a large amount of unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) remained in the piston clevis and small gaps. Furthermore, the model was capable of predicting the increase in UHC emissions when there was a delay in the ignition time. The flame front cells were plotted on Peters' premixed turbulent combustion diagram to identify transitions in the combustion states. It was found that the flame surface transitioned from corrugated flamelets through thin reaction zones to wrinkled flamelets and further to laminar flamelets, which led to wall quenching. The turbulent Reynolds number (Re) decreased rapidly due to the increase in laminar flame speed and flame thickness and the decrease in turbulent intensity and turbulent scale.
Technical Paper

Time to Boost Analysis of an Advanced Boosting System for Automotive Applications

2021-09-05
2021-24-0093
Fun to drive and drivability are important issues in modern vehicles, and the propulsion system plays a key role in achieving these goals. Today most engines are characterized by the presence of a turbocharging system to achieve a high level of specific power and efficiency. Unfortunately, turbocharged engines are characterized by a delay in the delivery of toque, especially at low load and low speed, a phenomenon commonly called turbo-lag. In this paper an innovative turbocharging system is studied with the aim of providing a solution to this annoying behavior; a hybrid boosting system consisting of a traditional turbocharger and an electrically assisted compressor is analyzed. This architecture, especially thanks to the good dynamic behavior of the e-compressor, achieves the goal of an important reduction in terms of time-to-boost, providing an important improvement in engine readiness.
Technical Paper

Friction Calculations and Validation Measures on an External Component Test Bench of the Piston Pin Bearing under the Influence of Greater Elastic Deformation Caused by a Hydrostatic Bearing

2021-09-05
2021-24-0001
Increasing combustion pressure, low viscosity oils, less oil supply and the increasing stress due to downsizing of internal combustion engines (ICE) lead to higher loads within the bearing. As the mechanical and tribological loads on the piston pin bearings have a direct impact on the service life and function of the overall engine system, it is necessary to develop a robust tribological design approach. Regarding the piston pin bearing of a diesel engine, this study aims to describe the effects of different parameters on a DLC-coated piston pin within the bearing. Therefore, an external engine part test rig, which applies various forces to the connecting rod and measures the torque on a driven pin, is used to carry out validation measurements. The special feature of the test bench is the way the piston is beared. For the first experiments, the piston crown is placed against a plate (plate-bearing); later, this plate-bearing is replaced by a hydrostatic bearing.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Turbocharged Two-Stroke Single Cylinder 425cc SI Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0003
An afterburner-assisted turbocharged single-cylinder 425 cc two-stroke SI-engine is described in this simulation study. This engine is intended as a Backup Range Extender (REX) application for heavy-duty battery electric vehicles (BEV) when external electric charging is unavailable. The 425 cc engine is an upscaled version of a 125 cc port-injected engine [26] which demonstrated that the selected technology could provide a specific power level of 400 kW/L and the desired 150 kW in a heavy duty BEV application. The 425 cc single cylinder two-stroke engine is an existing engine as one half of a 850 cc snowmobile engine. This simulation study includes upscaling of the swept volume, impact on engine speed and gas exchange properties. In the same way as for the 125cc engine [26], the exhaust gases reaches the turbine through a tuned exhaust pipe and an afterburner or oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of a PN Surrogate Model Based on Mixture Quality in a GDI Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0013
A novel surrogate model is presented, which predicts the engine-out Particle Number (PN) emissions of a light-duty, spray-guided, turbo-charged, GDI engine. The model is developed through extensive CFD analysis, carried out using the Siemens Simcenter STAR-CD, and considers a range of part-load operating conditions and single-variable sweeps where control parameters such as start of injection and injection pressure are varied in isolation. The work is attached to the Ford-led APC6 DYNAMO project, which aims to improve efficiency and reduce harmful emissions from the next generation of gasoline engines. The CFD work focused on the air exchange, fuel spray and mixture preparation stages of the engine cycle. A combined Rosin-Rammler and Reitz-Diwakar model, calibrated over a wide range of injection pressure, is used to model fuel atomization and secondary droplets break-up.
Technical Paper

Potentials of the Oversizing and H2-Supported Lean Combustion of a VVA SI Gasoline Engine Towards Efficiency Improvement

2021-09-05
2021-24-0007
In recent years, internal combustion engine (ICE) downsizing coupled with turbocharging was considered the most effective path to improve engine efficiency at low load, without penalizing rated power/torque performance at full load. On the other side, issues related to knocking combustion and excessive exhaust gas temperatures obliged adopting countermeasures that highly affect the efficiency, such as fuel enrichment and delayed combustion. Powertrain electrification allows operating the ICE mostly at medium/high loads, shifting design needs and constraints towards targeting high efficiency under those operating conditions. Conversely, engine efficiency at low loads becomes a less important issue. In this track, the aim of this work is the investigation of the potential of the oversizing of a small Variable Valve ActuationSpark Ignition gasoline engine towards efficiency increase and tailpipe emission reduction.
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