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Development of High-Efficiency Rotary Engines

2012-05-10
In this presentation, we will explain how the traditional Miller Cycle - which has its limitations in the traditional four-stroke, Otto Cycle engine provides new opportunities for greater fuel efficiency gains and engine downsizing when incorporated in a split-cycle combustion process. Results will also be shared from studies showing how these implementations can provide both significant drops in fuel consumption and increases in power when incorporated into some of today's most economic vehicles. Presenter Stephen Scuderi, Scuderi Group LLC
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1124
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Journal Article

Modeling the Cold Start of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1493
Optimization of the engine cold start is critical for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, since the emissions during the first 20 seconds of the cold start constitute more than 80% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for the entire EPA FTP75 drive cycle. However, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine cold start optimization is very challenging due to the rapidly changing engine speed, cold thermal environment and low cranking fuel pressure. One approach to reduce HC emissions for DISI engines is to adopt retarded spark so that engines generate high heat fluxes for faster catalyst light-off during the cold idle. This approach typically degrades the engine combustion stability and presents additional challenges to the engine cold start. This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address these challenges for the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost engine cold start.
Journal Article

Combustion System Optimization of a Low Compression-Ratio PCCI Diesel Engine for Light-Duty Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1464
A new combustion system with a low compression ratio (CR), specifically oriented towards the exploitment of partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) diesel engines, has been developed and tested. The work is part of a cooperative research program between Politecnico di Torino (PT) and GM Powertrain Europe (GMPT-E) in the frame of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) diesel combustion-system design and control. The baseline engine is derived from the GM 2.0L 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve-per-cylinder EU5 engine. It features a CR of 16.5, a single stage VGT turbocharger and a second generation Common Rail (1600 bar). A newly designed combustion bowl was applied. It features a central dome and a large inlet diameter, in order to maximize the air utilization factor at high load and to tolerate advanced injection timings at partial load. Two different piston prototypes were manufactured by changing the internal volume of the new bowl so as to reach CR targets of 15.5 and 15.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Journal Article

Detailed Unburned Hydrocarbon Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime

2009-04-20
2009-01-0928
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. This research concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of UHC via experiments and simulations in a 0.48L signal-cylinder light duty engine operating at 2000 r/min and 5.5 bar IMEP with multiple injections. A multi-gas FTIR along with other gas and smoke emissions instruments are used to measure exhaust UHC species and other emissions. Controlled experiments in the single-cylinder engine are then combined with three computational tools, namely heat release analysis of measured cylinder pressure, analysis of spray trajectory with a phenomenological spray model using in-cylinder thermodynamics [1], and KIVA-3V Chemkin CFD computations recently tested at LTC conditions [2].
Journal Article

Model Based E85 Cold Start Optimization for DISI Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1909
The startability of SI engines, especially of DISI engines, is the greatest challenge when using ethanol blended fuels. The development of a suitable injection strategy is therefore the main engineering target when developing an ethanol engine with direct injection. In order to limit the test efforts of such a program, a vaporization model has been created that provides the quantity of vaporized fuel depending on pressure and on start and end, respectively number and split relation of injections. This model takes account of the most relevant fuel properties such as density, surface tension and viscosity. It also considers the interaction of the spray with cylinder liner, cylinder head and piston. A comparison with test results shows the current status and the need for action of this simulation model.
Journal Article

Applying an Interactively Coupled CFD-Multi-Zone Approach to Study the Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry Variations on PCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1955
Recently, a consistent mixing model for the two-way coupling of a CFD code and a zero-dimensional multi-zone code was developed. This work allowed for building an interactively coupled CFD-multi-zone approach that can be used to model HCCI combustion. In this study, the interactively coupled CFD-multi-zone approach is applied to PCCI combustion in a 1.9l FIAT GM Diesel engine. The physical domain in the CFD code is subdivided into multiple zones based on one phase variable (fuel mixture fraction). The fuel mixture fraction is the dominant quantity for the description of nonpremixed combustion. Each zone in the CFD code is represented by a corresponding zone in the zero-dimensional multi-zone code. The zero-dimensional multi-zone code solves the chemistry for each zone, and the heat release is fed back into the CFD code. The thermodynamic state of each zone, and thereby the phase variable, changes in time due to mixing and source terms (e.g., vaporization of fuel, wall heat transfer).
Journal Article

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Thermodynamic Simulation of Engine with PCCI and High EGR Level

2009-06-15
2009-01-1956
A multi-zone, direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion model, the so-called RK-model, has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model takes into account: transient evolution of fuel sprays, interaction of sprays with swirl and walls, evolution of near-wall flow formed after spray-wall impingement depending on impingement angle and local swirl velocity, interaction of Near-Wall Flows (NWF) formed by adjacent sprays, influence of temperatures of gas and walls in the zones on evaporation rate. In the model the fuel spray is split into a number of specific zones with different evaporation conditions including zone on the cylinder liner and on the cylinder head. The piston bowl is assumed to be a body of revolution with arbitrary shape. The combustion model supports central and non-central injector as well as the side injection system. NOx formation model uses Detail Kinetic Mechanism (199 reactions with 33 species).
Journal Article

Applications of CFD Modeling in GDI Engine Piston Optimization

2009-06-15
2009-01-1936
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
Journal Article

Effect of Mesh Structure in the KIVA-4 Code with a Less Mesh Dependent Spray Model for DI Diesel Engine Simulations

2009-06-15
2009-01-1937
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Strategy on Cold Start Performance in an Optical Light-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0045
The present study investigates cold start at very low temperatures, down to −29 deg C. The experiments were conducted in an optical light duty diesel engine using a Swedish class 1 environmental diesel fuel. In-cylinder imaging of the natural luminescence using a high speed video camera was performed to get a better understanding of the combustion at very low temperature conditions. Combustion in cold starting conditions was found to be asymmetrically distributed in the combustion chamber. Combustion was initiated close to the glow plug first and then transported in the swirl direction to the adjacent jets. A full factorial study was performed on low temperature sensitivity for cold start. The effects of cooling down the engine by parts on stability and noise were studied. Furthermore, different injection strategies were investigated in order to overcome the limited fuel evaporation process at very low temperatures.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Journal Article

Effects of Methane/Hydrogen Blends On Engine Operation: Experimental And Numerical Investigation of Different Combustion Modes

2010-10-25
2010-01-2165
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
Journal Article

Ultrasonic Imaging of the Piston Ring Oil Film During Operation in a Motored Engine - Towards Oil Film Thickness Measurement

2010-10-25
2010-01-2179
The oil film that forms between piston rings and cylinder liners is an essential parameter which influences parasitic loss and emission rates in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Several methods have been used to analyse these thin oil films in the past, however, all these methods have required invasive access to the contact area via a window or a surface mounted sensor in the cylinder wall or liner. This paper introduces a novel approach for the imaging of the piston ring - cylinder contact, non-invasively. A straight beam ultrasonic contact transducer was coupled to the wet-side of the cylinder wall of a motored diesel engine. Ultrasonic waves were propagated through the cylinder wall and reflections from the ring-liner contact were recorded as the piston rings passed over the sensing area.
Journal Article

Direct Injection of High Pressure Gas: Scaling Properties of Pulsed Turbulent Jets

2010-10-25
2010-01-2253
Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection was into a pressure chamber with optical access. Injection pressures and injector hole geometry were selected to be representative of current and near-future DI natural gas engines. Each injector hole design has been characterized by measuring its discharge coefficient for different Re-levels. Transient jets produced by these injectors have been visualized using planar laser sheet Mie scattering (PLMS). For this the injected gas was seeded with small oil droplets. The corresponding flow field was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) laser diagnostics.
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