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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2018

2018-12-01
Electrification takes (some of) the load There’s no better way to relieve worry over meeting emissions regulations than by not producing any emissions from the start. But electric drive is not a silver bullet. Weight watcher Meritor optimizes product design and examines “exotic” materials like carbon fiber to slash mass from drivelines. Electrifying demo Diesel pioneer Deutz equipped telehandlers with hybrid and fully electric powertrains and put their capabilities on display. Automated and electric at IAA Far-out concepts and nearer-to-production prototypes dotted the show floor and outdoor demo track at the biennial commercial-vehicle event in Hanover, Germany. Delphi injects life into diesel Fuel-injection advances enable cleaner, quieter operation, while gains in power electronics and controls help grow electrification business.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of Sheet Metal Forming Simulation Computer Programs Into the Design Process

1996-04-01
91A121
In order to improve the design of drawn parts and to reduce the number of trial and error tests, Renault has undertaken the development and the validation of various finite element procedures and codes. This paper describes the function of each software and its level of integration into the design process. One of them is already an operational tool used be planners whilst the others are still in the validation phase. Selected examples show typical applications of the computer programs on automotive parts.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Plastics Injection Molded Auto Parts

1996-04-01
91A088
The article emphasizes the effect of flow on dimensional stability, mechanical properties and surface finish, and the close coupling of dimensional stability and mechanical properties. Warpage is the result of the balance between the structural stiffness of the part and the stress pattern resulting in variation in shrinkage due to area shrinkage, orientation, and thermal effects. The practical solution to warpage depends on the use of software to isolate the basic causes of warping which then leads to a logical solution procedure.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Using Microprocessors

1988-03-01
871156
An inexpensive driving simulation system with sufficient fidelity has been developed. The system produces motion cues of four degrees of freedom, visual and auditory cues, and control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the features of this newly developed system and gives examples that demonstrate its effectiveness. The motion cues provided in this system are yaw, heave, and lateral and fore/aft accelerations. The lateral and fore/aft accelerations are simulated by tilting the simulator compartment. A computer-processed road image is given through a CRT monitor. The restoring torque of the steering wheel is produced by an electrical servosystem via a coil spring. Cruising sound is given in order to improve speed perception. Since the system uses digital computers, the vehicle characteristics are altered easily by merely rewriting the software. This enables us to simulate special vehicle dynamics such as front & rear wheel steering.
Technical Paper

Use of Statistical Energy Analysis Method to Predict Sound Transmission Loss of Sound Barrier Assemblies

1999-05-17
1999-01-1707
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method is used to predict Sound Transmission Loss (STL) of sound barrier assemblies (SBA) commonly used in automotive dashmat design. Tests are performed for dashmat plaques with and without design features, and SEA equations have been used for predicting transmission loss with acceptable accuracy below the interception (cavity resonance) frequency. For frequency range higher than interception point, the SEA software used overestimates STL. For dashmat tests with design features, test results and SEA predictions are generally agreeable.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Damping Material Measurement / Design System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1675
A hardware / software package is presented that is used to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials as a function of temperature and frequency. The material properties can then be used to aid in the design of surface damping treatments for various engineering structures.
Technical Paper

Human Centered Manufacturing: a Necessity for Enhancing Productivity and Competitiveness

1999-04-20
1999-01-1605
This paper argues in favor of a human-centered (anthropocentric) approach to modern manufacturing. The bases for these arguments are: (a) worker deskilling and creativity issues, (b) economics, and (c) unresolved problems in automation, such as software reliance and costs. Detailed arguments are avoided owing to space limitations. Finally, some issues confronting human-centered manufacturing are raised.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Development of a Sensor-Less Speed Control Inverter for an Automotive Accessory Permanent Magnet Motor

2000-04-02
2000-01-1605
Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are partnered in a research effort to design and build a power inverter for use with an automotive accessory permanent magnet (PM) motor provided by VCS. The inverter is designed so it can fit within the volume of the housing, which is integrated with the motor. Moreover, a modular design for both the inverter and motor is employed for easily expanding the power capability to other applications. A simple back electromotive force (EMF) based position detection scheme is implemented with a digital signal processor (DSP) to eliminate the need for position sensors. Issues related to position detection errors are addressed and correction methods are suggested and implemented in DSP software. Finally, since the motor has very low inductance because of its core-less stator structure, the influences of the low inductance on the motor current ripple are analyzed.
Technical Paper

System Integration and Analysis in a Virtual Prototype Environment

1999-11-15
1999-01-3712
The design and analysis of vehicle wire harnesses presents a daunting challenge to the modern day transportation industry. The continual increase in on-board vehicle electronics, driven by both consumer and legislative demands, is causing an exponential increase in wire harness complexity. To meet these challenges, software tools have been developed to assist harness designer the various tasks from system partitioning to signal integrity analysis. This paper will explore how the SaberHarness™ tool suite can be used as a virtual prototype environment for a complete system design and analysis including wire harness interconnectivity.
Technical Paper

Standardizing Documentation for Standard Products: Creating Re-Usable FMEAs by Means of Generic Structures Based on Functional Groups

1999-11-15
1999-01-3711
Re-use of FMEA data and associated QS-9000 and APQP documentation is not only appropriate, but also efficient. Computerized document management systems allow for making changes quickly and easily throughout all affected documents and facilitate the recycling of documentation for future generations of design. Using IQ-FMEA quality software, this paper will demonstrate effective and efficient techniques for structured data re-use by means of a strategy of functionally-motivated generic structure templates.
Technical Paper

Standards for Vehicle to Office Data Communication

1999-11-15
1999-01-3755
Modern trucking companies are finding mobile data communication to be significant for operating fleets cost effectively in a competitive environment. Today's systems pass both business data and vehicle technical data between the vehicle and the business office. The communications companies which created these innovations have done so with proprietary designs, as, of course, is necessary when new technology is developed. However, as the diversity of applications expands and the market matures, the need for standards becomes apparent. In this paper we will outline standards being considered by The Maintenance Council (TMC) of the American Trucking Association to allow interoperability between onboard electronics, mobile communication systems, and office software applications.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Future Use of Java for Automotive Large-Scale Simulations

2000-03-06
2000-01-1376
Java is a very popular programming language for Internet- based applications. With the increasing use of webbased technology in the automotive industry, Java has the potential to play a significant role in the future of large-scale 3-D computations such as crash analysis and aerodynamic modeling. This paper focuses on Java' s current bottlenecks for such applications and activities to overcome those limitations. Topics discussed include: current status of large-scale automotive computations; numeric performance comparisons of Java, C++, and FORTRAN; Java benchmarks to assess numerical performance; Java' s current floating-point limitations; a roadmap for Java evolution amongst the commercial automotive independent software vendors (ISVs).
Technical Paper

Identifying the Environmental Impact Drivers and Tradeoff Options in the Life Cycle of Automobiles - A Software Based Methodology for the Sound Restriction of System Boundaries

2000-04-26
2000-01-1493
Life cycle assessments (LCA) require extensive quantities of data on processes as well as on material and energy flows. Therefore, simplifying methods that reduce the effort in modeling the product system do have the most potential to make reliable LCAs of complex products like automobiles more efficient. Methodological approaches allowing the LCA practitioner to conduct the scope definition and life cycle inventory (LCI) with minimal effort through “smart” software based support are introduced. The suggested methodology has been validated with a case study on material options for a front subframe system of a Ford passenger car.
Technical Paper

Digital Radiographic Technologies for Structural Automotive Components

2000-03-06
2000-01-1328
As aluminum automotive component suppliers continue to gain market share, they are doing so in areas that have been traditional holdouts for iron and steel components. Structural and safety critical components require a fluoroscopic (x–ray) inspection to verify part quality. This inspection process has traditionally been a labor and capital–intensive process utilizing an operator inspecting an x–ray image on a monitor. Multiple manned inspection units are often required due to the high volume, high throughput nature of the industry and the relative slow speed of a human inspector. With the advent of digital imaging techniques and image recognition algorithms, it is now feasible to remove the human from the inspection process. This enables companies to reduce manpower and improve the consistency of quality reaching the consumer. This paper analyzes the existing state of automatic digital radiography available to the automotive supplier industry.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Vibration and other Test Data from Rotating Machinery

2000-03-06
2000-01-1332
When collecting torsional vibration and other test data, many automotive testing departments utilise a combination of hardware and software tools whereby each tool is dedicated to a specific physical phenomenon. Following a series of measurements, the various data are merged for correlation and computer-aided analysis: a procedure which can be cumbersome and time-consuming. In addition, it can lead to errors when performing cross-channel time or phase analyses since all data will not necessarily have been collected on the same time base. In this paper, a portable pc-based data acquisition and analysis system is described which allows for reliable synchronised multi-channel acquisition and analysis of both torsional vibration and a variety of related signals.
Technical Paper

Characterization of New Fuel Qualities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2009
Many standardized tests for evaluating fuel properties have originally been designed for screening straight-run hydrocarbon products. In the case of fuels blended with new components or treated with additives, the traditional test methods may give misleading results. The objective of the work was to evaluate the correlation between the results of standardized testing and of the real-life serviceability of new diesel fuel qualities. Combustion properties, properties affecting exhaust emissions, low-temperature performance and diesel fuel lubricity were studied. The test fuel matrix comprised of typical conventional hydrocarbon diesel fuels, low-emission hydrocarbon fuels, rapeseed and tall oil esters and ethanol-blended diesel fuels. The base fuels were blended with a cetane improver additive and some fuels also with a cold flow improver additive. Combustion and emission tests were carried out with a heavy-duty bus engine and a diesel passenger car.
Technical Paper

Communication and Information Systems - A Comparison of Ideas, Concepts and Products

2000-03-06
2000-01-0810
How can car manufacturers, which are primary mechanical engineers, become software specialists? This is a question of prime importance for car electronics in the future. Modern vehicles offer a large number of electronic and software based functions to achieve a high level of safety, fuel economy, comfort, entertainment and security which are developed under pressure of regulations, of consumers needs and of competitive time to market aspects. This contribution draws a picture, what could be important in future for in car communication and information system in terms of development process, HW & SW architectures, partnerships in automotive industry and security of industrial properties. For this purpose the automotive development is reviewed and actual examples of system designs are given.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Friction Coefficients Between FullBending and Modified Membrane Formulationsfor Forming Simulation Codes

2000-03-06
2000-01-1105
Metal forming is complex; hence conducting computer simulations with reasonable turn around time requires a number of assumptions and simplifications of the physical reality. Since a number of commercial software codes are now available for metal forming simulation, it is very important that the underlying assumptions are well understood. It is not a simple case of one code being “better” than another; rather it is to understand the results and to apply them effectively. The goal of this investigation was to compare the simulation results between a full bending formulation (FBF) code and a modified membrane formulation (MMF) code, with particular emphasis on how friction should be “treated”. The strategy followed was to simulate the stamping of a simple U-channel FEA first in the FBF code and then to adjust the MMF results to be comparable by changing the friction coefficient. (The full bending code has been previously quantitatively correlated to many soft and hard tool stampings.)
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