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The traction motor is key to the �synergy of the electric powertrain�, the overall functionality of the battery, e-motor, power control electronics, and charging system. Therefore some automakers have decided to design, develop, and produce their traction motors in house while some others are working with suppliers for their electric power train motors. Off-the-shelf motors, no matter how extensively they are adapted for a specific application, can compromise the efficiencies of the propulsion system. Presenter Marc Winterhoff, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

Powertrain Innovation Requires Infrastructure Innovation!

Who are the people who know the most about the buses in your fleet? They are most likely the operators and the servicing technicians. They are also the key people whose knowledge, level of training and attitude can determine the success or failure of new powertrain technologies. Training and recruitment of both need to be held to a higher standard than we have seen in the past. I will argue that even the culture of those involved in fleet operations needs to be changed. The bar for technical competence and product knowledge needs to be raised for operators and technicians. In return managers should find ways to include them as stakeholders, investing them with both additional responsibility and accountability. This will require greater access to training and recognition of achievement. Where are the busses stored and serviced? Most likely in an all-purpose state/county/municipal service facility servicing a variety of equipment.
Technical Paper


Referring to the McKeen gasoline-driven car and one of the gasoline-electric type that were introduced in the early part of the present century and were the pioneers among self-propelled cars for railroad use, the author ascribes their limited success to their excessive weight and to engine and transmission troubles. Both these types, he thinks, might have been developed successfully had the gasoline engine been in its present state of efficiency and reliability. The early attempts having been more or less unsuccessful, the construction of all types was discontinued during the war. More recently the progress in the design and construction of highway motor-trucks has caused them to be adapted to railroad service by applying flanged tires to the rear wheels, pivotal pony-trucks forward and a motorbus body for the carrying of passengers and a limited amount of baggage.
Technical Paper

Timing-Gear Development

AFTER outlining the present status of the forms of drive for timing-gear trains, the author describes modifications of gear design made by the company he represents to overcome noise that involve lengthening gear-teeth for a given pitch. Various modifications in this regard were made and one having 16-pitch teeth with 12-pitch length had 10,000 miles of use in fourth speed without developing excessive wear. A further development resulting from experiments was the use of case-hardened timing-gears for motorcoach engines, such usage being thought to provide the most extreme conditions. Characteristics of so-called anti-stub gears are stated and predictions are made as to the future of timing-gear practice.
Technical Paper

Axle Ratios and Transmission Steps

STATING that improvements can be made in the smoothness, flexibility and economy of motor-cars by the provision of axle ratios and transmission steps that will make high road-speeds possible with lower engine-speeds than at present, and without increasing the size of the engine, the author presents arguments for the provision of two quiet and efficient gear-ratios. He asserts that the desired result can be obtained with either a two-speed rear-axle or a four-speed transmission having a quiet geared third speed, and a discussion is given of the considerations that determined the ratios actually selected in an experimental car fitted with a four-speed transmission having an internal-gear train for obtaining the third speed. Charts are included which show the car speeds at various engine-speeds and the grades that can be climbed with the several gear-ratios. The beginning of a tendency toward the use of transmissions of this type in Europe is reported at the conclusion of the paper.
Technical Paper


Various efforts have been made to apply the internal-combustion engine to self-propelled rail-cars. The greatest development along this line prior to the war was in connection with the McKeen and General Electric cars that were built from 1906 to 1914. The builders of those cars were greatly handicapped by the lack of available experience in connection with the design of gasoline engines, particularly of the larger type. Since the war a gradual development of rail-cars has taken place, starting with small converted motor trucks and gradually increasing in size and adaptability to the service, until now gasoline-electric cars of 250 hp. and about 75 ft. in length are available, while mechanically driven cars are available up to 190 continuous horsepower.
Technical Paper


Development of the uses of electricity having begun approximately three decades ago, about the time that the automobile made its appearance, the application of electricity to the needs of the automobile has enabled manufacturers to meet the demands of the public for its production. When electricity was applied to starting the internal-combustion engine and to lighting the automobile 15 years later, the popularity of the automobile greatly increased. Now, 5 per cent of the weight and nearly 10 per cent of the selling price of a five-passenger sedan represent electrical apparatus that adds to the comfort and convenience of the public.
Technical Paper


AERATION of aircraft-engine oil has spasmodically caused trouble with pressure regulation for several years. A protracted investigation and test program by Wright Aeronautical Corp., though still unfinished, shows by laboratory, test stand, and flight test, that some facts well known for years have been neglected and aeration of oil therefore invited while deaeration has been definitely restrained. A review of basic facts and known methods indicates that if they were taken into account in design and service operation, we could go a long way in reducing trouble with oil pressure regulation due to entrained air, according to Mr. Weeks. The engine itself, obviously, is the main source of entrained air, but the scavenge pumps are not solely responsible, the author reports. Oil fed to them from gear trains contains 6-20% very finely divided air. Entrained air is, he concludes, inherent to engines with integral reduction drive gears, supercharger drives, and multiple accessory drives.
Technical Paper

Full-Scale Field Service Tests of Railroad Diesel Fuels - Report of the CFR-DFD Group on Full-Scale Field Service Tests of Railroad Diesel Fuels of CRC

THIS paper describes the background, technology, and recognizes the economies concerning a wider range of fuel quality for the railroad diesel locomotive. Comparisons are made between normal railroad fuel and a wider range of fuel in eight one-year tests in three types of locomotive equipment. The test fuels caused increases in engine deposits, wear, and in contamination of filters and lubricating oil. In five of the tests the test fuels did not interfere with locomotive availability. In three tests changes in materials or methods of maintenance were necessary for continuance of operations. It appears that fuels of the types tested can be used without interfering with locomotive ability if proper precautions are taken.
Technical Paper

Synchronization of Brakes on Multi-Axle Truck-Trailer Trains

THIS paper presents a discussion of tests and mathematical studies made during the past year in connection with the synchronization of brakes on truck-trailer combination units. These developments point to a clarification of the many misconceptions and exaggerated ideas which have been built up concerning timing, steering, and braking necessary to offset the dangerous jackknife type of skid, as well as the slide which frequently occurs on slippery pavements. The writer describes two types of jack-knife which may occur if the braking power on certain axles builds up more rapidly than on others. A third type of jackknife may result from steering as, for example, in a sudden turn to avoid an obstacle, even with no brakes applied. The writer points out that synchronized braking cannot offer anything spectacular in the way of shortening stopping distance unless build-up time is shortened considerably in the process.
Technical Paper

American Experience with BUCHI TURBO - CHARGING

THIS paper reviews briefly the background of the adoption of the Buchi turbo-charging system in the United States, particularly with reference to the American Locomotive Co. and the Cooper-Bessemer Corp. who were most active in sponsoring it. Broad design considerations are discussed, concerning the requirements for best results with the use of this type of supercharger. Performance curves covering several makes of engines are included, and special characteristics of the turbo-charged engine are discussed. The paper also contains a brief description of turbo-charger units of American manufacture. In remarks concerning the probable trend of future supercharging developments, the authors predict that the four-cycle supercharged diesel engine is on the verge of rapid evolution toward a substantial reduction in specific weight and space, to be accompanied by considerable research and field operating experience.
Technical Paper

Locomotive Power and Performance Requirements With Special Reference to Gas Turbine Locomotives

THE inherent simplicity of the gas turbine and its well-known success in aircraft applications is leading to its consideration for locomotive use. As a matter of fact, gas turbine locomotives have already found limited use by a few railroads throughout the world. The author discusses these applications and some of the lessons learned from them. He points out that, although the first gas turbine locomotive to be put in service was built in 1941 - the same year that the first commercial diesel locomotive was placed in service -the latter has forged rapidly ahead, so that today the railroads are about 75% dieselized. What, then, has held the gas turbine locomotive back? Mr. McGee points out that two of the most significant factors responsible are: 1. Metallurgical problems - the need for materials capable of withstanding the high temperatures encountered. 2. High fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

TORQUE CONVERTER For Industrial and Commercial Vehicles

TORQUE converters have many advantages for industrial and commercial vehicles. Some of those listed by the author are: 1. Smooth acceleration. 2. Engine need not be declutched when it is unloaded or idling. 3. More horsepower delivered at low output speeds and during acceleration, compared with conventional transmissions. 4. Operator mistakes of improper gear selection and missing of shifts are reduced to a minimum. 5. Load held to power source at all times. 6. Damping out of engine torsional vibration. 7. Increased life for drive train beyond transmission. 8. Cushioning of shock loads during starting and shifting, and of sudden increases in load.