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Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements

The object of this paper is to present a new way of analyzing in-cylinder velocity measurements. The technique is called Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and it is similar to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with one important difference it is possible to obtain both time localized and frequency resolved information. This paper demonstrates the use of DWT calculations on in-cylinder LDV flow measurements for different combustion geometries in a natural gas converted truck engine. It will furthermore provide some information about how DWT can be used with in-cylinder measurements in the future.
Technical Paper

High-Speed PLIF Imaging for Investigation of Turbulence Effects on Heat Release Rates in HCCI Combustion

High-speed laser diagnostics was utilized for single-cycle resolved studies of the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber of a truck-size HCCI engine. A multi-YAG laser system consisting of four individual Nd:YAG lasers was used for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the fuel distribution. The fundamental beam from the lasers at 1064 nm was frequency quadrupled in order to obtain laser pulses at 266 nm suitable for excitation of acetone that was used as fuel tracer. Bursts of up to eight pulses with very short time separation were produced, allowing PLIF images with high temporal resolution to be captured within one single cycle event. The system was used together with a high-speed framing camera employing eight ICCD modules, with a frame-rate matching the laser pulse repetition rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence on HCCI Combustion

This paper presents large eddy simulation (LES) and experimental studies of the combustion process of ethanol/air mixture in an experimental optical HCCI engine. The fuel is injected to the intake port manifolds to generate uniform fuel/air mixture in the cylinder. Two different piston shapes, one with a flat disc and one with a square bowl, were employed to generate different in-cylinder turbulence and temperature field prior to auto-ignition. The aim of this study was to scrutinize the effect of in-cylinder turbulence on the temperature field and on the combustion process. The fuel tracer, acetone, is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to characterize the reaction fronts, and chemiluminescence images were recorded using a high speed camera, with a 0.25 crank angle degree resolution, to further illustrate the combustion process. Pressure in the cylinder is recorded in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence and Initial Temperature Inhomogeneity on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

A 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine firing a mixture of n-heptane (50%) and iso-octane (50%) with air/fuel ratio of 3 is studied using large eddy simulation (LES) and laser diagnostics. Formaldehyde and OH LIF and in-cylinder pressure were measured in the experiments to characterize the ignition process. The LES made use of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism that consists of 233 species and 2019 reactions. The auto-ignition simulation is coupled with LES by the use of a renormalized reaction progress variable. Systematic LES study on the effect of initial temperature inhomogeneity and turbulence intensity has been carried out to delineate their effect on the ignition process. It was shown that the charge under the present experimental condition would not be ignited without initial temperature inhomogeneity. Increasing temperature inhomogeneity leads to earlier ignition whereas increasing turbulence intensity would retard the ignition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Stratification on the Auto-ignition of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI engine

It has been known from multi-zone simulations that HCCI combustion can be significantly affected by temperature stratification of the in-cylinder gas. With the same combustion timing (i.e. crank angles at 50% heat release, denoted as CA50), large temperature stratification tends to prolong the combustion duration and lower down the in-cylinder pressure-rise-rate. With low pressure-rise-rate HCCI engines can be operated at high load, therefore it is of practical importance to look into more details about how temperature stratification affects the auto-ignition process. It has been realized that multi-zone simulations can not account for the effects of spatial structures of the stratified temperature field, i.e. how the size of the hot and cold spots in the temperature field could affect the auto-ignition process. This question is investigated in the present work by large eddy simulation (LES) method which is capable of resolving the in-cylinder turbulence field in space and time.