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Technical Paper

Design Details of the Compression Ignition Rotating Liner Engine. Reducing Piston Assembly Friction and Ring/Liner Wear in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2012-09-24
2012-01-1963
The Rotating Liner Engine (RLE) is an engine design concept where the cylinder liner rotates in order to reduce piston assembly friction and liner/ring wear. The reduction is achieved by the elimination of the mixed and boundary lubrication regimes that occur near TDC. Prior engines for aircraft developed during WW2 with partly rotating liners (Sleeve Valve Engines or SVE) have exhibited reduction of bore wear by factor of 10 for high BMEP operation, which supports the elimination of mixed lubrication near the TDC area via liner rotation. Our prior research on rotating liner engines experimentally proved that the boundary/mixed components near TDC are indeed eliminated, and a high friction reduction was quantified compared to a baseline engine. The added friction required to rotate the liner is hydrodynamic via a modest sliding speed, and is thus much smaller than the mixed and boundary friction that is eliminated.
Technical Paper

Improved Passage Design for a Spark Plug Mounted Pressure Transducer

2007-04-16
2007-01-0652
Combustion chamber pressure measurement in engines via a passage is an old technique that is still widely used in engine research. This paper presents improved passage designs for an off-set electrode spark plug designed to accept a pressure transducer. The spark plug studied was the Champion model 304-063A. Two acoustic models were developed to compute the resonance characteristics. The new designs have a resonance frequency in a range higher than the fundamental frequency expected from knock so that the signal can be lowpass filtered to remove the resonance and not interfere with pressure signal components associated with combustion phenomena. Engine experiments verified the spark plug resonance behavior. For the baseline engine operating condition approximately 50 of 100 cycles had visible passage resonance in the measured pressure traces, at an average frequency of 8.03 kHz.
Technical Paper

From Spark Plugs to Railplugs – The Characteristics of a New Ignition System

2004-10-25
2004-01-2978
Ignition of extremely lean or dilute mixtures is a very challenging problem. Therefore, it is essential for the engine development engineer to understand the fundamentals and limitations of existing ignition systems. This paper presents a new railplug ignition concept, a high-energy ignition system, which can enhance ignition of very lean mixtures by means of its high-energy deposition and high velocity jet of the plasma. This paper presents initial results of tests using an inductive ignition system, a capacitor discharge ignition system, and a railplug high-energy ignition system. Discharge characteristics, such as time-resolved voltage, current, and luminous emission were measured. Spark plug and railplug ignition are compared for their effects on combustion stability of a natural gas engine. The results show that railplugs have a very strong arc-phase that can ensure the ignition of very dilute mixtures.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Reduction Through Liner Rotation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1652
Cylinder liner rotation (Rotating Liner Engine, RLE) is a new concept for reducing piston assembly friction in the internal combustion engine. The purpose of the RLE is to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of boundary and mixed lubrication friction in the piston assembly (specifically, the rings and skirt). This paper reports the results of experiments to quantify the potential of the RLE. A 2.3 L GM Quad 4 SI engine was converted to single cylinder operation and modified for cylinder liner rotation. To allow examination of the effects of liner rotational speed, the rotating liner is driven by an electric motor. A torque cell in the motor output shaft is used to measure the torque required to rotate the liner. The hot motoring method was used to compare the friction loss between the baseline engine and the rotating liner engine. Additionally, hot motoring tear-down tests were used to measure the contribution of each engine component to the total friction torque.
Technical Paper

A Full-Cycle Multi-Zone Quasi-Dimensional Direct Injection Diesel Engine Model Based on a Conceptual Model Developed from Imaging Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0537
A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed on Combustion in SI Engines: Comparisons of Predictions of a Fractal Burning Model with Experimental Data

1993-10-01
932714
Predictions of the Fractal Engine Simulation code were compared with SI engine data in a previous paper. These comparisons were extremely good except for the single data set available at a low engine speed. Because of uncertainty regarding whether the lack of agreement for this case resulted from some difficulty with the experimental data or was due to lack of proper speed dependence in the model, additional comparisons are made for a range of speeds from 300-1500 rpm. The fractal burning model is a turbulence driven model (i.e., driven primarily by the turbulence intensity) that divides the combustion process into four sequential phases: 1) kernel formation, 2) early flame growth, 3) fully developed turbulent flame propagation, and 4) end of combustion. The kernel formation process was not included in the previous version of this model, but was found to be required to predict engine speed effects.
Technical Paper

Effects of Railplugs on the Dilution Tolerance of a Spark Ignition Engine

1993-08-01
931800
The results of continuing investigations of a new type of ignitor, the railplugs are reported. Previous studies have shown that railplugs can produce a high velocity jet of plasma. Additionally, railplugs have the potential of assuring ignition under adverse conditions, such as for very dilute mixtures, because the railplug plasma is both hotter and has a larger mass than the plasma generated by a spark plug. In this paper, engine data are presented to demonstrate the improved dilution tolerance obtainable with railplugs. Data acquired using a railplug are compared to results obtained using a conventional spark plug and a spark plug with a wide spark gap, both using an inductive ignition system. The present results affirm earlier, preliminary findings that railplugs can extend the dilution limit and produce faster combustion.
Technical Paper

Further Analysis of Railplugs as a New Type of Ignitor

1992-10-01
922167
The results of continuing investigations of a new type of ignitor, the railplug, are reported. Previous studies have shown that railplugs can produce a high velocity jet that is driven both by electromagnetic and thermal forces and that the jet velocity is strongly affected by the railplug geometry and by the electronics characteristics of the follow-on circuit. The present research was intended to provide insights about both: 1) how to match the electronics characteristics to a given geometry and 2) how the geometry affects the jet velocity. It is found that faster current rise times result in higher plasma velocities but current pulses that are too short result in rapid deceleration of the plasma while it is still within the railplug. It is also found that a fundamental geometric parameter is the ratio of the inductance gradient to the volume trapped within the railplug: the larger L′/V, the faster the resulting combustion process.
Technical Paper

Initial Studies of a New Type of Ignitor: The Railplug

1991-10-01
912319
Initial investigations of a new type of high energy ignitor for I.C. engines are described. The ignitor is a miniaturized railgun, or “railplug.” The railplug produces a relatively large mass of high velocity plasma. These characteristics may be advantageous for initiating combustion in a number of different applications. Unlike a plasma jet ignitor, the railplug plasma is driven not only by thermodynamic expansion, but by electromagnetic forces as well. Four experimental railplug designs were evaluated using schlieren and shadowgraphy visualization to examine plasma movement and shape. Railplug current and voltage were also measured. One railplug consisting of two unenclosed parallel rails was used to demonstrate the electromagnetically induced motion of the plasma at ambient conditions. Schlieren photos showed that the plasma plume moves strongly in the direction of the electromagnetic Lorentz forces.
Technical Paper

Intake and ECM Submodel Improvements for Dynamic SI Engine Models: Examination of Tip-In/Tip-Out

1991-02-01
910074
Improved submodels for use in a dynamic engine/vehicle model have been developed and the resulting code has been used to analyze the tip-in, tip-out behavior of a computer-controlled port fuel injected SI engine. This code consists of four submodels. The intake simulation submodel is similar to prior intake models, but some refinements have been made to the fuel flow model to more properly simulate a timed port injection system, and it is believed that these refinements may be of general interest. A general purpose engine simulation code has been used as a subroutine for the cycle simulation submodel. A conventional vehicle simulation submodel is also included in the model formulation. Perhaps most importantly, a submodel has been developed that explicitly simulates the response of the on-board computer (ECM) control system.
Technical Paper

A Fractal-Based SI Engine Model: Comparisons of Predictions with Experimental Data

1991-02-01
910079
A quasidimensional engine simulation which uses the concepts of fractal geometry to model the effects of turbulence on flame propagation in a homogeneous charge SI engine has been developed. Heat transfer and blowby/crevice flow submodels are included in this code and the submodels chosen are found to be reasonable. The model predictions of cylinder pressure histories are then compared with experimental data over a range of loads, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The model is not adjusted in any manner to yield better agreement with the data, other than by tuning the simple turbulence model used so as to yield agreement with data for the nonreacting flow. However, current information about the flame wrinkling scales in an engine is inadequate. Therefore, predictions are made for three different assumptions about the flame wrinkling scales which span the range of physically possible scales.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies

1996-10-01
961966
Because only the unburned gases in the crevices can contribute to hydrocarbon emissions, a model was developed that can be used to determine the temporal and spatial histories of both burned gas and unburned gas flow into and out of the piston-liner crevices. The burned fraction in the top-land is primarily a function of engine design. Burned gases continue to get packed into the inter-ring volume until well after the end of combustion and the unburned fuel returned to the chamber from this source depends upon both the position of the top ring end gap relative to the spark plug and of the relative positions of the end gaps of the compression rings with respect to each other. Because the rings rotate, and because the fuel that returns to the chamber from the inter-ring crevice dominates the sources between BDC and IVO when conditions are unfavorable to in-cylinder oxidation, these represent two sources of variability in the HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in SI Engines with a Peninsula-Fractal Combustion Model

1996-02-01
960072
In premixed turbulent combustion models, two mechanisms have been used to explain the increase in the flame speed due to the turbulence. The newer explanation considers the full range of turbulence scales which wrinkle the flame front so as to increase the flame front area and, thus, the flame propagation speed. The fractal combustion model is an example of this concept. The older mechanism assumes that turbulence enables the penetration of unburned mixtures across the flame front via entrainment into the burned mixture zone. The entrainment combustion or eddy burning model is an example of this mechanism. The results of experimental studies of combustion regimes and the flame structures in SI engines has confirmed that most combustion takes place at the wrinkled flame front with additional combustion taking place in the form of flame fingers or peninsulas.
Technical Paper

Diluents and Lean Mixture Combustion Modeling for SI Engines with a Quasi-Dimensional Model

1995-10-01
952382
Lean mixture combustion might be an important feature in the next generation of SI engines, while diluents (internal and external EGR) have already played a key role in the reductions of emissions and fuel consumption. Lean burn modeling is even more important for engine modeling tools which are sometimes used for new engine development. The effect of flame strain on flame speed is believed to be significant, especially under lean mixture conditions. Current quasi-dimensional engine models usually do not include flame strain effects and tend to predict burn rate which is too high under lean burn conditions. An attempt was made to model flame strain effects in quasi-dimensional SI engine models. The Ford model GESIM (stands for General Engine SIMulation) was used as the platform. A new strain rate model was developed with the Lewis number effect included.
Technical Paper

A Multidimensional Numerical Model for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Fractal Geometries

1995-10-01
952386
We present a multidimensional numerical model that calculates turbulent premixed flame propagation, assuming the flames have fractal geometries. Two scaling transformations, previously developed for laminar flames, are used to incorporate the fractal burning model in KIVA-II1, a numerical hydrodynamics code for chemically reactive flows. In this work the model is implemented for propane/air mixtures. For applications to internal combustion engines, we have also developed a fractal model for early flame kernel growth. Our multidimensional model can be used in experimental comparisons to test postulated fractal parameters, and we begin this task by comparing calculated results with measurements of propane/air combustion in a spark ignition engine. Good agreement is obtained between computed and measured flame positions and pressures in all cases except a low engine speed case.
Technical Paper

Condensation of Fuel on Combustion Chamber Surfaces as a Mechanism for Increased HC Emissions from SI Engines During Cold Start

1997-10-01
972884
Condensation of fuel vapor on the cold surfaces within the combustion chamber is investigated as a possible mechanism for increased HC emissions from SI engines during cold start. A one-dimensional, transient, mass diffusion analysis is used to examine the condensation of single-species fuels on the surfaces of the combustion chamber as the pressure within the cylinder rises during compression and combustion, and re-vaporization during expansion, blowdown, and exhaust. The effects of wall temperature, fuel volatility, and engine load and speed on this mechanism are also discussed. This analysis shows that low-volatility fuel components can condense on the surfaces of the combustion chamber when the surface temperatures are sufficiently low. This condensed fuel may re-vaporize during the power and exhaust strokes, or it may remain in the combustion chamber until surface temperatures rise, perhaps tens of seconds later.
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