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Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Occupied Car Seats

1999-05-17
1999-01-1690
An overview of model development for seated occupants is presented. Two approaches have been investigated for modeling the vertical response of a seated dummy: finite element and simplified mass-spring-damper methods. The construction and implementation of these models are described, and the various successes and drawbacks of each modeling approach are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the models, emphasis was also placed on producing accurate, repeatable measurements of the static and dynamic characteristics of a seated dummy.
Technical Paper

Occupant Sensors' Response to Small Female and Mid-Sized Male Crash Test Dummies

2000-03-06
2000-01-1004
The introduction of occupant position sensors into automobiles raises questions about the response of these sensors to current crash test dummies. To adequately test the performance of these sensors in a crash environment, it is crucial that crash test dummies resemble humans. Each sensor technology perceives the crash test dummy as being different from a human. These differences range considerably. The differences for four sensor technologies, capacitive, electric field, ultrasonic and pressure pattern, are described. The differences between humans and crash test dummies are discussed, along with possible modifications to the crash test dummies that improve the biofidelity of the crash test dummy. Results will be presented from testing on a mid-sized male and small female.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0879
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA. Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
Technical Paper

Simple Experimental Methods for Measurement of Heat Capacities for Electronic and Structure Components

2000-07-10
2000-01-2495
For the prediction of the transient behavior of thermal nodes which are interacting within a Thermal Mathematical Model (TMM) it is necessary to know the heat capacity of each node. For instance this is actual for components of opto-electronic devices for space exploration. Other assignment is to define the thermal properties of new structure materials and their combinations. Often the base for the correction of the TMM is the comparison of the calculated node temperatures with the node temperatures measured on a Thermal Engineering Model (TEM) during a Thermal Vacuum Test. The TEM has to be very similar to the flight hardware from the thermal point of view. But very expensive flight components are replaced in the TEM by thermal equivalent dummies. This makes it possible to use all components of the TEM for an unusual but simple experimental determination of their heat capacity as well.
Technical Paper

Head Injury in Fork Lift Upsets

2000-09-11
2000-01-2547
Phase I, Phase II, Caterpillar, Allis-Chalmers, Clark, Hyster, Toyota, and Entwistle fork lift upset studies have been conducted with Hybrid II dummies, Side Impact Dummies, and stunt men. The investigations concluded that the dummy lacks the ability to brace itself, hold on, and does not have adequate biofidelity to represent the human in a fork lift upset. Crushing injuries and death typically occur when the operator is thrown or jumps from the overturning forklift and is pinned by the overhead guard or canopy. The dummy studies demonstrated a wide range of Head Injury Criteria (HIC) values that were not reproducible. Furthermore, other injury producing variables such as angular acceleration, angular velocity or induced brain stress were not investigated. The injury level of 1000 for the HIC for the mid-sized male, small female, and 6 year-old has been recommended by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Technical Paper

Proactive Human Factors Engineering Analysis in Space Station Design Using the Computer Manikin Jack

2000-06-06
2000-01-2166
In this case study, a human factors analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). The manikin software Jack® was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. All Cupola astronaut tasks were evaluated in a virtual environment of the Cupola. Methodological aspects concerning the analysis are described, e.g. file processing, use of coordinate systems and the use of a prior task analysis. Results show that the thorough manikin analysis supported with the hierarchical task analysis results, was an important help in the design process.
Technical Paper

Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS to Heavy Duty Truck Design at Freightliner Corporation

2000-06-06
2000-01-2165
This paper describes application examples of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic truck evaluations, to truck design. RAMSIS realistically simulates truck driver postures and locations, an important prerequisite to having confidence in subsequent ergonomic analyses. We show examples of how visibility evaluations compare to traditional SAE methods, arm reach and force evaluation; and an example for entry/exit evaluations.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Postural Variability: Limitations of the Boundary Manikin Approach

2000-06-06
2000-01-2172
Human figure models are commonly used to facilitate ergonomic assessments of vehicle driver stations and other workplaces. One routine method of workstation assessment is to conduct a suite of ergonomic analyses using a family of boundary manikins, chosen to represent a range of anthropometric extremes on several dimensions. The suitability of the resulting analysis depends both on the methods by which the boundary manikins are selected and on the methods used to posture the manikins. The automobile driver station design problem is used to examine the relative importance of anthropometric and postural variability in ergonomic assessments. Postural variability is demonstrated to be nearly as important as anthropometric variability when the operator is allowed a substantial range of component adjustment. The consequences for boundary manikin procedures are discussed, as well as methods for conducting accurate and complete assessments using the available tools.
Technical Paper

Anthropometry for WorldSID A World-Harmonized Midsize Male Side Impact Crash Dummy

2000-06-19
2000-01-2202
The WorldSID project is a global effort to design a new generation side impact crash test dummy under the direction of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The first WorldSID crash dummy will represent a world-harmonized mid-size adult male. This paper discusses the research and rationale undertaken to define the anthropometry of a world standard midsize male in the typical automotive seated posture. Various anthropometry databases are compared region by region and in terms of the key dimensions needed for crash dummy design. The Anthropometry for Motor Vehicle Occupants (AMVO) dataset, as established by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), is selected as the basis for the WorldSID mid-size male, updated to include revisions to the pelvis bone location. The proposed mass of the dummy is 77.3kg with full arms. The rationale for the selected mass is discussed. The joint location and surface landmark database is appended to this paper.
Technical Paper

Progress in Linking Human Performance Models and Human Motion Simulation Models

2000-06-06
2000-01-2185
Over the past fifteen years, modeling humans in systems has become a more and more common part of design. There have been two focuses of modeling humans - modeling human anthropometry and biomechanics and modeling human behavior and cognition. Recent advances in computer technology are making it easier to integrate models from these two schools. The result of this integration will be dramatic animations that reflect the complexity of human behavior. This paper will address some specific ideas and progress we are making towards this integration.
Technical Paper

Comparative Consistency of Univariate Measures from Traditional and 3-D Scan Anthropometry

2000-06-06
2000-01-2145
Traditional and three-dimensional (3-D) scan tools capture anthropometric information in different ways. It is not surprising that measurements from each can have different values. Some possible reasons for differences are tissue compression when using traditional tools, and the difficulty of precise replication of traditional measures using computer algorithms. Even with precise replication of traditional methods, there may be consistent differences in magnitude that can be compensated for. Once compensation factors have been determined, people who have only traditional tools available can also use measurements extracted from 3-D scan data, and people who use 3-D scans can relate extracted measurements to historical data. With adjustments, the results of either method can be used interchangeably. This research compares the consistency of traditional and 3-D scan anthropometry for a small set of traditional univariate measures.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic Evaluation and Visualization in the Car Design Process

2001-06-26
2001-01-2114
Industries strive to minimize their development costs, to shorten the time required for development and to increase the quality of the product. The paper summarizes three ergonomic evaluation methods developed for the automotive industry. The first method presents a manikin with a movement pattern similar to people. The second method is a tool to evaluate comfort that can be combined with a manikin. The third and last, is a methodology for eliciting user comments. Ergonomic evaluation methods and tests with a computer support and generate information that may lead to reduced product development cost. These kinds of tools are also suitably used in cross-functional project groups in order to visualize alternative designs, and evaluations in a participative process. Visualization of traffic, driver and eye-movements seems to open up the discussion and is a step to a more user-centered design process.
Technical Paper

Application and Development of Manikin in Automobile Inner Packaging and Design System

2001-06-26
2001-01-2118
This paper focuses on the importance, classification, foundation method of the manikin for design in automobile inner packaging system. Also the positioning in the auto-body system is included. Many kinds of manikins, which are exclusively used in auto-body packaging system, are developed. Lastly, the application of the manikin in auto-body packaging system is discussed. Some examples to demonstrate the application are also given.
Technical Paper

Some Notes on the Issue of Anthropometrical Accuracy in Digital Human Modeling Manikins

2001-06-26
2001-01-2107
This paper addresses some aspects of the issue of anthropometrical accuracy in digital human modeling manikins as expressed in a proposed European draft prEN ISO 15536. Some problems and possible solutions are illustrated by comparing two computer manikin systems available in our School of Industrial Design Engineering.
Technical Paper

Prerequisites for Extensive Computer Manikin Analysis – An Example with Hierarchical Task Analysis, File Exchange Protocol and a Relational Database

2001-06-26
2001-01-2101
In this case study, a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola. Cupola is a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of a Barter Arrangement between ESA and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Manikin software was used early in the design process before the production of any flight hardware. The manikin analysis was supported by the use of hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database. This paper describes methodological aspects of the use of the supporting methods. Results show that hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database are prerequisites for successful extensive manikin analysis.
Technical Paper

A STUDY OF THE UPPER LEG COMPONENT TESTS COMPARED WITH PEDESTRIAN DUMMY TESTS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0235
The upper leg component test proposed by EEVC WG17 is one of the tools for the evaluation of upper leg injuries in pedestrian accidents. Meeting the injury criteria set by EEVC for the upper legform impact test is one of the biggest challenges we can find in the reports. This problem was studied in previous papers using simulation models or reconstruction of pedestrian accidents. The POLAR pedestrian dummy was constructed by HONDA R&D and GESAC INC., and some crash tests were conducted with it. The object of this study is to compare EEVC WG17 upper legform impact test conditions for utility vehicles with the full dummy test results. To reconstruct the deformation resulting from tests using the POLAR, the impact energy for the EEVC upper legform impact test should be decreased. Even the upper limit of 700J is too high. Accident data analysis shows that the pelvis is the body part injured by the bonnet leading edge of the utility vehicle.
Technical Paper

THE U.S. NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NCAP): PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

2001-06-04
2001-06-0245
The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests and results provide crucial information to consumers on the relative safety of new vehicles. The expanded visibility and use of NCAP information by consumers in their buying decisions, and increased references to NCAP information by vehicle manufacturers in their advertisements, contribute to the manufacture and purchase of safer vehicles and attest to the expanded importance of NCAP. NHTSA has increased the types of tests and the categories and numbers of vehicles it tests and is considering the use of smaller stature dummies in NCAP. Developmental testing has been conducted and consideration is being given to adding crash avoidance information, such as braking and headlamp performance, as well as child restraint ratings, to NCAP. A fully developed plan for the future of NCAP will assure its maximum safety benefits and cost effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Astronaut Radiation Exposures at Selected Locations in the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2329
The bulk of the daily space radiation exposure to International Space Station astronauts will be received during times spent at selected locations. Using a recently updated and improved shielding model of the ISS, mass shielding distributions have been generated for these selected ISS locations. Anatomical math models have been developed for use in conjunction with spacecraft shielding models and space radiation dose codes to compute astronaut radiation exposures at the critical body organ level. In this paper we present a parametric study of crew radiation exposures at several selected locations, discuss the impact and effects on several mission scenarios, and present some ideas to further mitigate their exposures.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Occupant Response in the ECE R29 Safety Test

2001-03-05
2001-01-3845
This paper discusses the structural assessment of a heavy truck cabin with respect to occupant response in test designed to simulate a frontal collision. ECE R29 describes a series of test conditions to which truck cabins should comply, however these tests do not consider the occupant directly. ECE-R29 uses prescribed limits of cabin crush to ensure occupant protection rather measuring occupant injury based on Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), or dummies. The “Swing Bob” dynamic test procedure prescribed by ECE R29 is used as a basis for assessing survivability. An existing Finite Element model of the truck cabin has been used in conjunction with a Hybrid III 50th%ile dummy model in the Crash Victim Simulator, MADYMO. A computer analysis has been performed and found that injury to the occupant in the lower leg region in this kind of impact is likely to be survivable.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE TOTAL HUMAN MODEL FOR SAFETY (THUMS) AND APPLICATION TO CAR-PEDESTRIAN IMPACTS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0054
“THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety)”, as shown in Figure 1, is a finite element model of a human body developed to study various injury mechanisms, and is used as a substitute for the crash test dummies used for car occupants and pedestrians. “THUMS” is designed so that the whole body can be deformed and modeled in detail up to an AM50%ile size. In this paper, “THUMS” is used as a pedestrian model and it is validated through the verification of pedestrian’s whole body kinematics and lower extremity injuries. The simulation results are in good agreement with car-pedestrian impact test results using cadavers.
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